Small RNAs are differentially expressed in autoimmune and non-autoimmune diabetes and controls

in European Journal of Endocrinology
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  • 1 HUNT Research Centre, Department of Public Health and Nursing, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, NTNU, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Levanger, Norway
  • | 2 Department of Endocrinology, Clinic of Medicine, St. Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway
  • | 3 Bioinformatics Core Facility – BioCore, Norwegian University of Science and Technology NTNU, Trondheim, Norway
  • | 4 Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, NTNU, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway
  • | 5 Central Administration, St. Olav’s Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway
  • | 6 K.G. Jebsen Center for Genetic Epidemiology, Department of Public Health and Nursing, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, NTNU, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway

Correspondence should be addressed to E P Sørgjerd; Email: elin.p.sorgjerd@ntnu.no

*(E P Sørgjerd and R Mjelle contributed equaly to this work)

Open access

Objective

Diabetes is a heterogeneous disease and a precise diagnosis of diabetes subgroups is necessary to initiate proper early treatment and clinical management of the disease. Circulating small RNAs (sRNAs) are potentially diagnostic biomarkers in diseases, including diabetes. Here we aimed to examine whether profiles of circulating sRNAs differed between patients with autoimmune and non-autoimmune diabetes and non-diabetic controls.

Design

This cross-sectional case–control study included participants from the third survey of the HUNT study.

Methods

We performed sRNA sequencing in serum from adult-onset type 1 diabetes (n = 51), type 2 diabetes (n = 50) and latent autoimmune diabetes in adult (LADA, n  = 51), as well as non-diabetic HUNT3 participants as control group (n = 51). Differential expression analysis of the sRNAs was performed in R using limma-voom.

Results

We identified differences in sRNA expression between autoimmune (type 1 diabetes and LADA) and non-autoimmune diabetes (type 2 diabetes) and between patients with diabetes and non-diabetic controls. Focusing on miRNA, we identified 10 differentially expressed mature miRNAs and 30 differentially expressed miRNA variants (isomiRs). We also identified significant changes within other sRNA classes, including a pronounced downregulation of a tRNA fragment in patients with diabetes compared to non-diabetic controls. We created cross-validated sRNA signatures based on the significant sRNAs that distinguished patients with diabetes from non-diabetic controls, and autoimmune from non-autoimmune diabetes, with high specificity and sensitivity. sRNA profiles did not distinguish between type 1 diabetes and LADA.

Conclusions

Circulating sRNAs are differentially expressed between patients with diabetes and non-diabetic controls and between autoimmune and non-autoimmune diabetes.

Abstract

Objective

Diabetes is a heterogeneous disease and a precise diagnosis of diabetes subgroups is necessary to initiate proper early treatment and clinical management of the disease. Circulating small RNAs (sRNAs) are potentially diagnostic biomarkers in diseases, including diabetes. Here we aimed to examine whether profiles of circulating sRNAs differed between patients with autoimmune and non-autoimmune diabetes and non-diabetic controls.

Design

This cross-sectional case–control study included participants from the third survey of the HUNT study.

Methods

We performed sRNA sequencing in serum from adult-onset type 1 diabetes (n = 51), type 2 diabetes (n = 50) and latent autoimmune diabetes in adult (LADA, n  = 51), as well as non-diabetic HUNT3 participants as control group (n = 51). Differential expression analysis of the sRNAs was performed in R using limma-voom.

Results

We identified differences in sRNA expression between autoimmune (type 1 diabetes and LADA) and non-autoimmune diabetes (type 2 diabetes) and between patients with diabetes and non-diabetic controls. Focusing on miRNA, we identified 10 differentially expressed mature miRNAs and 30 differentially expressed miRNA variants (isomiRs). We also identified significant changes within other sRNA classes, including a pronounced downregulation of a tRNA fragment in patients with diabetes compared to non-diabetic controls. We created cross-validated sRNA signatures based on the significant sRNAs that distinguished patients with diabetes from non-diabetic controls, and autoimmune from non-autoimmune diabetes, with high specificity and sensitivity. sRNA profiles did not distinguish between type 1 diabetes and LADA.

Conclusions

Circulating sRNAs are differentially expressed between patients with diabetes and non-diabetic controls and between autoimmune and non-autoimmune diabetes.

Introduction

Most individuals with diabetes are classified as having type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is basically an autoimmune disease. Autoimmunity is also present in patients with a phenotype of type 2 diabetes but with detectable autoantibodies against pancreatic beta-cells (1, 2, 3, 4, 5). This form of diabetes, latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA), constitutes 4–10% of what was formerly regarded as type 2 diabetes (6, 7). The diagnosis of LADA is generally based on the presence of autoantibodies (mainly GAD autoantibody) at diabetes diagnosis, age >30 years old at diabetes onset and at least 6 months between the time of diagnosis and initiation time of insulin treatment.

A high GADA level in LADA has been associated with earlier insulin initiation, lower BMI and type 1 diabetes-associated genes, for example, being more type 1 diabetes-like both phenotypically and genotypically (7, 8, 9). Conversely, low GADA levels have been associated with a more type 2 diabetes-like phenotype and genotype.

Overall, both the pathophysiology and the genetic characterization of LADA are far less understood than its counterparts, type 1 and type 2 diabetes. While LADA and type 2 diabetes today are easily separated by measurements of pancreatic autoantibodies like GADA, LADA and adult-onset type 1 diabetes are primarily separated by time of insulin initiation and are therefore subjected to the clinicians’ decisions. Individuals with adult-onset type 1 diabetes more often have elevated levels of two or more autoantibodies than those having LADA, although LADA patients may also be positive for other autoantibodies like Islet antigen 2 (IA-2) and Zink transporter 8 (ZnT8) (10). The C-peptide concentration would also be low or not detectible in type 1 diabetes, but usually normal or low in LADA. More precise differentiation between LADA and adult-onset type 1 diabetes is therefore a relevant clinical issue and biomarkers that can differentiate between the subgroups of diabetes are needed for more precise diagnosis. Ketosis-prone diabetes (KPD) is an intermediate form of diabetes that shares features of both type 1 and 2 diabetes, highlighting the complexity of diabetes diagnostics (11). KPD differs from LADA in that LADA is generally not prone to diabetic ketoacidosis (12). To improve the characterization of LADA and better distinguish LADA from type 1 (especially adult-onset type 1 diabetes) and type 2 diabetes, new roads need to be explored.

miRNA are found to be useful as biomarkers for both the development and progression of many diseases including type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Studies have shown that miRNAs are stable and readily detectable in serum from biobanks and therefore can be used for biomarker discovery several years after collection (13). A study by Zampetaki et al. found that using an expression profile of the five most significant miRNAs (miR-15a, miR-126, miR-320, miR-223 and miR-28-3p) could identify 70% of the patients with type 2 diabetes (14). These miRNAs were altered before diabetes diagnosis and could also predict about 50% of those who later developed type 2 diabetes. Knowledge on miRNAs in LADA is sparse. Two recent studies, Seyhan et al. and Yu et al., suggested that miRNAs could be useful biomarkers to distinguish between subtypes of diabetes; however, the number of LADA patients in these two studies was limited (15, 16). Thus, it is still not clear whether miRNAs profiles can identify individuals at risk of developing LADA and if characterization of miRNAs could lead to a better differentiation between LADA, type 1 and type 2 diabetes. This study aimed to explore the notion that circulating small RNAs (sRNAs) in serum could be differentially expressed between three main subgroups of diabetes, including adult-onset type 1 diabetes and LADA as autoimmune diabetes and non-autoimmune type 2 diabetes and between the subgroups of patients with diabetes and non-diabetic controls. For this purpose, we used the data from the Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT).

Methods

Study population

In this cross-sectional case–control study, we included participants from the third HUNT survey (HUNT3, 2006–2008, n  = 50 800, response rate 54.1%). Details about HUNT3 are available elsewhere (17). Study participants were categorized into four groups, including three groups with self-reported diabetes: LADA (n = 51), adult-onset type 1 (n = 51) and type 2 diabetes (n = 50), and one group with self-reported non-diabetic participants serving as controls (n = 51). The clinical characteristics of the four groups are shown in Table 1. More information regarding the selection of study population and diabetes classification is described in Supplementary methods (see section on supplementary materials given at the end of this article). Power calculations using RnaSeqSampleSize in R showed that with group sizes of 50, our sequencing data has a power of 0.91 when using a minimum fold change of 1.5 and a false discovery rate threshold of 0.05.

Table 1

Descriptive statistics of study participants. The P-values represent the statistical differences between the groups for the specific variables after multivariable adjustment. Data are presented as mean ± s.d. or as median (IQR).

VariableNon-diabetic controlsType 2 diabetesLADAType 1 diabetesP-value
n51505151
Males, n (%)24 (47)28 (56)27 (53)28 (55)1
Age at participation (years)52.8 ±15.763.7 ± 11.267.9 ± 9.359.8 ± 11.80.8
Age at diabetes diagnosis (years)NA55.9 ± 10.955.1 ± 10.144.9 ± 11.70.04
Diabetes duration (years)NA5.8 (3.2–10.7)12.6 (4.8–20.3)13.1 (6.9–22.6)0.008
BMI (kg/m2)27.9 ± 4.230.6 ± 4.829.0 ±4.527.4 ± 3.60.3
Waist circumference (cm)96.8 ± 13.5103.6 ± 12.4100.4 ± 11.694.4 ± 9.20.1
Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)129 ± 19140 ± 19137 ± 22133 ± 161
Cholesterol (mmol/L)5.4 ± 1.15.1 ± 0.94.9 ± 0.84.7 ± 1.00.4
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L)1.3 ± 0.41.2 ± 0.31.3 ± 0.41.4 ± 0.30.3
Triglycerides (mmol/L)1.6 ± 0.82.4 ± 1.22.1 ± 1.61.2 ± 0.70.003
Non-fasting glucose (mmol/L)5.4 ± 0.98.5 ± 2.89.9 ± 4.19.8 ± 4.81
HbA1c (% HbA1c)NA7.2 ± 1.47.3 ± 1.28.2 ± 1.20.07
HbA1c (mmol/mol)NA55 ± 1556 ± 1366± 130.07
Fasting C-peptide (nmol/L)NA0.90 ± 0.420.60 ± 0.430.08 ± 0.149e-15
GADA titer (ai)0.00 (0.00–0.01)0.00 (0.00–0.01)0.34 (0.11–1.11)0.23 (0.02–0.98)0.0001

RNA isolation and sequencing

Total RNA was isolated from 100 µL of serum using the miRNeasy Serum/Plasma Kit (Qiagen, Cat. No./ID: 217184). The serum samples were stored at −80°C at the HUNT biobank prior to RNA isolation and the RNA was isolated immediately prior to sequencing.

Small RNA library preparation was performed using the NEXTflex sRNA-seq kit v3 (Bio Scientific, Austin, TX, USA) using 10.5 µL total RNA. In the first ligation step, ten calibrator RNAs were mixed with the RNA to control for technical variation during the data analysis.

Single read sequencing (sRNA-seq) was performed for 51 cycles on one HiSeq4000 flow cell, according to the manufacturer's instructions. (Illumina, Inc., San Diego, CA, USA). More detailed information regarding RNA isolation, library preparation and sequencing are described in Supplementary methods.

Data processing

The raw sequencing data were processed as previously described (18), in addition to removing the random nucleotides associated with the NEXTFLEX sRNA library preparation kit. For more information on how this was performed see Supplementary methods. The databases miRBase (19) and RNACentral (20) were used for miRNA and other small ncRNAs, respectively.

Statistical analysis

The correlation of clinical variables with the diabetes groups was examined using the manova function in R combined with summary.aov to extract the P-values. The P-values were adjusted for multiple testing using the Bonferroni method.

Differentially expressed sRNAs between the groups were detected using the limma-voom procedure in R (21). Calibrator RNAs were used for normalization by using the CalcNormFactors from on the calibrator matrix. For the differential expression analysis, a design matrix was created with the groups being compared, as well as the variables age, sex and BMI as additional covariates. An example of the limma-voom procedure for isomiR is show in Supplementary methods.

Small RNAs with a benjamini-hochberg adjusted P-value < 0.05 were considered as differentially expressed. For mature miRNAs, we required an expression of at least 1 count-per million (cpm) in all the samples. For isomiRs and other small ncRNAs, we required an expression of at least 1 cpm in 50% of the samples. The reason for the less conservative filter for the isomiRs and sRNAs is that isomiRs by definition are less expressed than their corresponding mature miRNAs, since the mature miRNAs are the sum of all corresponding isomiRs. Furthermore, sRNAs are also less expressed than the miRNAs since our protocols aim for miRNAs. Applying too strict filters will risk removing true positive sRNAs that are for instance absent in one particular sample. The heatmaps were created using the pheatmap function in R for which the expression values were normalized first by cpm-log2 normalization followed by z-score normalization. The leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) on the signatures was conducted in R by performing feature selection in limma for each iteration followed by selecting the significant sRNAs after benjamini-hochberg adjustment, which was then used to predict the left-out sample. The predicted values were then used as input to the roc function in R from the pROC package. The specificities- and sensitivities-vectors from the roc function were used to plot the ROC-curves using ggplot2. The confidence intervals for the AUC were extracted from the ci.auc function and the P-values were calculated from the roc.area function. The LOOCV model is available at https://github.com/MjelleLab/Leave-one-out-cross-validation. The expression of miRNAs and other sRNAs can be browsed in the following shiny app: https://mjellelab.shinyapps.io/shiny_diabetes_sRNA/.

Gene enrichment analysis were performed using clusterProfiler in R by using mRNA targets predicted by TargetScan. Different context score thresholds from TargetScan were tested.

Results

Sequencing statistics and clinical variables

On average, 12 million reads were sequenced across all 203 samples (Table 1) of which about 1 million aligned to miRNAs and 1 million aligned to other sRNAs (Supplementary Figs 2 and 3). miRNAs were the most abundant class of sRNAs, followed by tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs (Supplementary Figs 2 and 4). 70 miRNAs and 128 isomiRs were consistently expressed in all samples. A multivariable analysis was performed to examine differences in the variables between groups (Table 1). Mainly GADA, C-peptide and diabetes duration differed between the four groups.

Circulating miRNAs and isomiRs expression differ between autoimmune and non-autoimmune diabetes and between types of diabetes and non-diabetic controls

We performed differential expression analysis on both miRNAs and isomiRs and observed significant differences between the groups. First, we observed differences in expression of mature miRNAs between type 2 diabetes and controls, between type 2 diabetes and LADA and between type 1 diabetes and controls (Fig. 1A and Supplementary Table 1). The miRNA miR-22-3p was downregulated in controls compared to type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes and lower in LADA compared to controls. Most differences were found between type 2 diabetes and LADA and between type 1 diabetes and controls with five and four differentially expressed miRNAs, respectively. To investigate if time from diagnosis to samples collection could affect the results for the three diabetes groups, we included this variable as a covariate in the analysis. We did not observe any major changes in the differentially expressed miRNAs after including this covariate, and the miRNAs that were significant before were still significant, albeit with slightly higher P-values (Supplementary Tables 1 and 2). Finally, we tested if the mRNA targets of the significant miRNAs were enriched for specific gene ontology terms; however, no significant enrichments were observed.

Figure 1
Figure 1

(A) Differentially expressed mature miRNAs. Shown are miRNAs that were significantly detected as differentially expressed between the groups using limma-voom. The heatmap shows the average z-score normalized expression of the miRNAs within the groups. The comparisons for which the different miRNAs were detected as significant are shown as a separate heatmap in which red and gray color indicate that the miRNA difference is significant and non-significant, respectively. (B) Similar as in (A) for isomiRs. The isomiR-sequence for the different miRNAs is indicated as part of the miRNA ID. See (A) for explanation of the heatmaps.

Citation: European Journal of Endocrinology 187, 2; 10.1530/EJE-22-0083

Next, focusing on isomiRs, we detected 30 differentially expressed isomiRs, originating from 26 different mature miRNAs (Fig. 1B and Supplementary Table 2). We observed significant differences of five of the comparisons, of which type 1 diabetes vs type 2 diabetes showed the largest differences with 14 differentially expressed isomiRs. For the type 1 diabetes vs type 2 diabetes comparison, 13 of the 14 significant isomiRs were higher expressed in type 2 diabetes compared to type 1 diabetes.

Decreased expression of tRNA-gly in diabetes

Having established that several miRNAs and isomiRs were differentially expressed between the study-groups, we went on analyzing other sRNAs that were detected in the serum samples. We detected 18 differentially expressed sRNAs across all comparisons (Fig. 2 and Supplementary Table 3). The highest number of differentially expressed sRNAs were found between type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes and between type 2 diabetes and LADA with ten and eight significantly differentially expressed sRNAs for the two comparisons, respectively. In total, we detected nine differentially expressed tRNAs, four Y-RNAs, two antisense RNAs, one snRNA and one lncRNA. The most significant sRNA difference across all comparisons was for the tRNA URS0000684E4B, which encodes the amino acid glycine. The expression of this tRNA was strongly reduced in the diabetes groups compared to controls, in particular LADA, which showed the lowest expression. We investigated if the observed difference could be due to length differences in the sequencing libraries between the groups and observed only minor fragment-length differences between the groups, indicating that the expression differences are indeed related to the biology of the groups (Supplementary Figs 5 and 6). To further test the possibility that length differences could affect the differential expression of the tRNA, we updated the limma-voom model by including the total read abundance for the fragment lengths 30–33 nucleotides as a covariate, corresponding to the lengths of tRNAs in our data. The updated model showed that URS0000684E4B was still significantly downregulated in LADA vs controls when adjusting for the abundance of tRNAs in the dataset (P = 1.2e-05, benjamini-hochberg adjusted).

Figure 2
Figure 2

Differentially expressed other sRNAs. Shown are sRNAs that were significantly detected as differentially expressed between the groups using limma-voom. The IDs correspond to the RNACentral IDs. The comparisons for which the different sRNAs were detected as significant are shown as a separate heatmap in which red and gray color indicate that the sRNA difference is significant and non-significant, respectively.

Citation: European Journal of Endocrinology 187, 2; 10.1530/EJE-22-0083

MicroRNA and sRNA signatures discriminate diabetes subgroups and non-diabetic controls

Having shown that multiple miRNAs are differentially expressed between different subgroups of diabetes and between diabetes and controls, we assessed the diagnostic potential of our newly identified miRNA, isomiRs and sRNAs. We combined the significant sRNAs for each specific group comparison into signatures and evaluated their ability to separate the different groups in our data set. That is, each signature consists of all the sRNAs that were significant for the different comparisons using limma-voom. To test the ability of the models to correctly classify new samples, we performed LOOCV and considered validated signatures with an area under the curve (AUC) value above 0.7 to have a predictive value (see Methods). In total, we tested three signatures for the mature miRNAs, five for isomiRs and five signatures for other sRNAs, corresponding to the comparisons for which we had significant results. Prior to the LOOCV, all the tested signatures showed AUC-values above 0.7. After the LOOCV, we identified two miRNA-signatures and three isomiR signatures with an AUC above 0.7. The two miRNA signatures separated type 2 diabetes from LADA (AUC = 0.75 (0.65–0.84), P-value = 1.1 × 10−5) and type 2 diabetes from controls (AUC = 0.78 (0.69–0.90), P-value = 4.2 × 10−7) (Fig. 3A and B). The three isomiR signatures separated type 2 diabetes from LADA (AUC = 0.81 (0.73–0.9), P-value = 2.5 × 10−8), type 2 diabetes from controls (AUC = 0.71 (0.60–81), P-value = 1.5 × 10−4) and type 1 diabetes from type 2 diabetes (AUC = 0.75 [0.65–0.84], P-value = 7.9 × 10−6) (Fig. 3C, D and E).

Figure 3
Figure 3

ROC-curves for the leave-one-out cross-validated models for the miRNA- (A and B), isomiR- (C, D and E) and other sRNA- (F and G) signatures. Shown are only signatures that passed the leave-one-out cross-validation. The signatures include those RNAs that were significant for the different group-comparisons after adjusting for multiple testing (see Methods for details on the leave-one-out cross-validation).

Citation: European Journal of Endocrinology 187, 2; 10.1530/EJE-22-0083

Next, given the pronounced difference in expression of other sRNAs between many of the groups, we investigated the diagnostic ability of the other sRNAs in classifying diabetes. Similar as for miRNAs, sRNAs that were significant for the specific group-comparisons were included in the signature. We identified two significant signatures after LOOCV, one that separated LADA from controls (AUC = 0.80 (0.71–89), P-value = 7.7 × 10−8) and one that separated type 2 diabetes and LADA (AUC = 0.84 (0.76–91), P-value = 3.1 × 10−9) (Fig. 3F and G). The glycine tRNA was included in all LOOCV-signatures for the LADA vs controls comparison, indicating a diagnostic potential. Taken together, these results show that not only miRNAs but also other sRNAs, such as tRNAs, can differentiate between diabetes subgroups.

Discussion

Our study is the first to perform comprehensive sRNA-seq on all three major diabetes subgroups simultaneously in addition to non-diabetic controls. In this study we demonstrate that several sRNAs are differentially expressed in serum of diabetes patients and therefore might be useful to distinguish between diabetes and non-diabetic controls and partly between subgroups of diabetes.

The miRNA miR-22-3p was more highly expressed in all diabetes groups compared to the control group. A study in rats showed that upon 3,5-diiodo-l-thyronine (T2) treatment, a drug shown to have beneficial effect on glucose tolerance and insulin-resistance, serum levels of miR-22-3p decreased compared to rats not receiving T2 treatment. This finding is in line with our results in the way that T2 treated rats and non-diabetic controls in our study represent a healthier state, with lower miR-22-3p levels (22). In addition to miR-22-3p, the miRNAs miR-423-5p and miR-375-3p were also more highly expressed in all diabetes groups compared to control, although differences in these miRNAs were only significant in type 1 diabetes vs controls.

Seyhan et al. identified up-regulation of miR-375 in type 1 diabetes compared to LADA and non-diabetic controls (15). This finding is in concordance with our study; however, other studies have shown downregulation or unchanged levels of miR-375 (23), indicating the variability of miRNA expression in serum and that different methods and study population could affect which sRNAs are detected as differentially expressed. Anyway, miR-375 is shown to be enriched in human islet cells (24), a regulator for insulin secretion (25) and increased miR-375 in the blood is shown to be associated with beta-cell death in mice (26).

In general, we observed larger differences between type 2 diabetes and LADA than between type 1 diabetes and LADA. This could be explained by the fact that both type 1 diabetes and LADA are autoimmune diseases and that the same sRNAs are affected in both diseases, but also lack of power, although our power calculation indicates good power with current sample sizes. The only sRNA that significantly separated LADA from type 1 diabetes was an isomiR of miR-23b-3p which was more highly expressed in LADA compared to type 1 diabetes. The miR-23b-3p is enriched in human beta-cells and shown to be downregulated in cytokine (IL-1beta and TNF-gamma) treated beta-cells and potentially involved in beta-cells death (27). This makes the miR-23b-3p a potential biomarker for differentiating LADA from type 1 diabetes; however, this needs to be tested in future studies with larger groups. We were not able to create a predictive signature that separated LADA from type 1 diabetes, indicating that these groups are too similar with respect to serum sRNA expression to be distinguished with high confidence.

By performing sRNA-seq, we were able to measure other sRNAs in addition to miRNAs. Among the many groups of sRNAs, we detected significant sRNA differences in several of the comparisons. The most striking difference was the pronounced depletion of a glycine tRNA within the three diabetes groups. The highest depletion was detected in the LADA group; however, all three diabetes groups showed significant down-regulation of this tRNA compared to the control group. This tRNA is located within an intron of the ULK2 gene. No previous literature supports a role for this particular tRNA in diabetes; however, tRNAs are emerging as a novel group of molecules playing a role in diabetes-related processes such as glucose metabolism, pancreatic β-cell function, obesity and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes (28). Dysregulation of amino acids in diabetes is a known phenomenon where for instance glycine has been shown to be reduced in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (29). Indeed, several studies have observed reduced levels of plasma glycine in patients with obesity and diabetes (30, 31, 32, 33, 34). Other studies have reported difference in dysregulation of amino acids such as elevated levels of Val, ILe and Leu in impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or T2D (35, 36). Patients with impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes are shown to have lower levels of certain amino acids such as arginine and glutamine (37). Together, dysregulation of amino acids appears to be a common phenomenon in diabetes and our finding of a dysregulated tRNA coding for glycine supports current literature and could explain some of the previously observed changes at the amino acid level.

One possible limitation of this study is that the diabetes diagnosis is based on self-report. However, the self-reported diagnosis of diabetes in HUNT has previous been shown to have good validity (38). Another limitation is the lack of complete clinical measurements for all relevant variables. For C-peptide, we only have measurements for 94 patients and none of the controls. miRNA that are correlated with the missing variables could potentially be false positives. However, we do have complete measurement for BMI which is considered an important clinical variable in diabetes studies. Several studies do not adjust for age, sex and BMI in the analysis. BMI may be particularly important as this phenotype shares many of the same inflammatory responses seen in diabetes and many miRNAs are shown to be differentially expressed in obese individuals (39). One could argue that we should had adjusted for other risk factors for diabetes such as physical activity and diet which might also influence the expression of small RNAs. However, these risk factors are hard to measure in a valid way, and we lack accurate measures of these risk factors in HUNT. Nonetheless, much of the excess risk of diabetes associated with low physical activity and poor diet is likely mediated through BMI.

No consensus on the circulating miRNA profile for diabetes has been established and findings between most previous studies show little or no overlap. The lack of consistency between studies could have several reasons. First, the date of sample collection relative to the diagnosis date is not the same between studies, meaning that the phenotype of the patients, such as the degree of beta-cell death, may not be comparable between studies, leading to different sets of miRNAs being detected as differentially expressed. It should be noted that our serum samples were collected several years after diabetes diagnosis (at a median time of 7.4 years) and therefore not necessarily reflect the differences at the time of diagnosis. Moreover, high-throughput sequencing like many other technologies, such as RT-qPCR and microarray, has different biases that could affect the results.

In conclusion, by performing sRNA-seq on serum from diabetes patients we identified several miRNAs, isomiRs and other sRNAs that are differentially expressed between patients with diabetes and non-diabetic controls and between LADA and type 2 diabetes. Moreover, we describe a novel tRNA fragment encoding for glycine that could potentially be used as a diagnostic tool in combination with other biomarkers.

Supplementary materials

This is linked to the online version of the paper at https://doi.org/10.1530/EJE-22-0083.

Declaration of interest

Bjørn O Åsvold is on the editorial board of EJE. Bjørn O Åsvold1was not involved in the review or editorial process for this paper, on which he/she is listed as an author. The other authors have nothing to disclose.

Funding

This project was funded by Liaison Committee between the Central Norway Regional Health Authority (RHA) and the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) (grant 90154900) and The Joint Research Committee between St. Olavs Hospital and the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, NTNU (FFU, grant 90502900).

Data availability

Due to Norwegian privacy laws, sequencing data will not be uploaded to a publicly available repository. The data sets analyzed in the current study can be made available upon reasonable request to the corresponding author or HUNT Research Center (kontakt@hunt.ntnu.no, https://www.ntnu.edu/hunt/data).

Author contribution statement

E P S conceptualized the project and R M performed the data analysis. E P S and R M drafted the manuscript and take full responsibility for the accuracy of the analyses. V B and A F contributed with the RNA sequencing. B O Å and V G were involved in project design. All authors contributed to the interpretation of the results and critically revised and approved the final version of the manuscript.

Acknowledgements

The HUNT Study is a collaboration between the HUNT Research Centre (Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, NTNU, Norwegian University of Science and Technology).

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    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8

    Pettersen E, Skorpen F, Kvaloy K, Midthjell K, Grill V. Genetic heterogeneity in latent autoimmune diabetes is linked to various degrees of autoimmune activity: results from the Nord-Trondelag Health Study. Diabetes 2010 59 302310. (https://doi.org/10.2337/db09-0923)

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9

    Zampetti S, Campagna G, Tiberti C, Songini M, Arpi ML, De Simone G, Cossu E, Cocco L, Osborn J & Bosi E et al.High GADA titer increases the risk of insulin requirement in LADA patients: a 7-year follow-up (NIRAD study 7). European Journal of Endocrinology 2014 171 697704. (https://doi.org/10.1530/EJE-14-0342)

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10

    Sorgjerd EP, Skorpen F, Kvaloy K, Midthjell K, Grill V. Time dynamics of autoantibodies are coupled to phenotypes and add to the heterogeneity of autoimmune diabetes in adults: the HUNT study, Norway. Diabetologia 2012 55 13101318. (https://doi.org/10.1007/s00125-012-2463-y)

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11

    Balasubramanyam A, Nalini R, Hampe CS, Maldonado M. Syndromes of ketosis-prone diabetes mellitus. Endocrine Reviews 2008 29 292302. (https://doi.org/10.1210/er.2007-0026)

  • 12

    Nadhem O, Nakhla E, Smalligan RD. Diabetic ketoacidosis as first presentation of latent autoimmune diabetes in adult. Case Reports in Medicine 2015 2015 821397. (https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/821397)

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13

    Keller A, Rounge T, Backes C, Ludwig N, Gislefoss R, Leidinger P, Langseth H, Meese E. Sources to variability in circulating human miRNA signatures. RNA Biology 2017 14 17911798. (https://doi.org/10.1080/15476286.2017.1367888)

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14

    Zampetaki A, Kiechl S, Drozdov I, Willeit P, Mayr U, Prokopi M, Mayr A, Weger S, Oberhollenzer F & Bonora E et al.Plasma microRNA profiling reveals loss of endothelial miR-126 and other microRNAs in type 2 diabetes. Circulation Research 2010 107 810817. (https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.110.226357)

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15

    Seyhan AA, Nunez Lopez YO, Xie H, Yi F, Mathews C, Pasarica M, Pratley RE. Pancreas-enriched miRNAs are altered in the circulation of subjects with diabetes: a pilot cross-sectional study. Scientific Reports 2016 6 31479. (https://doi.org/10.1038/srep31479)

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16

    Yu K, Huang Z, Zhou J, Lang J, Wang Y, Yin X, Zhou Y, Zhao D. Transcriptome profiling of microRNAs associated with latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA). Scientific Reports 2019 9 11347. (https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-47726-z)

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17

    Krokstad S, Langhammer A, Hveem K, Holmen TL, Midthjell K, Stene TR, Bratberg G, Heggland J, Holmen J. Cohort profile: the HUNT study, Norway. International Journal of Epidemiology 2013 42 968977. (https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dys095)

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18

    Mjelle R, Sellæg K, Sætrom P, Thommesen L, Sjursen W, Hofsli E. Identification of metastasis-associated microRNAs in serum from rectal cancer patients. Oncotarget 2017 8 9007790089. (https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.21412)

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19

    Kozomara A, Griffiths-Jones S. miRBase: annotating high confidence microRNAs using deep sequencing data. Nucleic Acids Research 2014 42 D68D73. (https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkt1181)

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20

    The RNAcentral Consortium. RNAcentral: a hub of information for non-coding RNA sequences. Nucleic Acids Research 2019 47 D1250D1251. (https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gky1206)

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21

    Law CW, Chen Y, Shi W, Smyth GK. voom: precision weights unlock linear model analysis tools for RNA-seq read counts. Genome Biology 2014 15 R29. (https://doi.org/10.1186/gb-2014-15-2-r29)

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22

    Senese R, Cioffi F, Petito G, de Lange P, Russo A, Goglia F, Lanni A, Potenza N. miR-22-3p is involved in gluconeogenic pathway modulated by 3,5-diiodo-L-thyronine (T2). Scientific Reports 2019 9 16645. (https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-53019-2)

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23

    Vasu S, Kumano K, Darden CM, Rahman I, Lawrence MC, Naziruddin B. MicroRNA signatures as future biomarkers for diagnosis of diabetes states. Cells 2019 8 1533. (https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8121533)

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24

    van de Bunt M, Gaulton KJ, Parts L, Moran I, Johnson PR, Lindgren CM, Ferrer J, Gloyn AL, McCarthy MI. The miRNA profile of human pancreatic islets and beta-cells and relationship to type 2 diabetes pathogenesis. PLoS ONE 2013 8 e55272. (https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055272)

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25

    Poy MN, Eliasson L, Krutzfeldt J, Kuwajima S, Ma X, Macdonald PE, Pfeffer S, Tuschl T, Rajewsky N & Rorsman P et al.A pancreatic islet-specific microRNA regulates insulin secretion. Nature 2004 432 226230. (https://doi.org/10.1038/nature03076)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26

    Erener S, Mojibian M, Fox JK, Denroche HC, Kieffer TJ. Circulating miR-375 as a biomarker of beta-cell death and diabetes in mice. Endocrinology 2013 154 603608. (https://doi.org/10.1210/en.2012-1744)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27

    Grieco FA, Sebastiani G, Juan-Mateu J, Villate O, Marroqui L, Ladriere L, Tugay K, Regazzi R, Bugliani M & Marchetti P et al.MicroRNAs miR-23a-3p, miR-23b-3p, and miR-149-5p regulate the expression of proapoptotic BH3-only proteins DP5 and PUMA in human pancreatic beta-cells. Diabetes 2017 66 100112. (https://doi.org/10.2337/db16-0592)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28

    Arroyo MN, Green JA, Cnop M, Igoillo-Esteve M. tRNA biology in the pathogenesis of diabetes: role of genetic and environmental factors. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 2021 22 496. (https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020496)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29

    Felig P, Marliss E, Ohman JL, Cahill CF Jr. Plasma amino acid levels in diabetic ketoacidosis. Diabetes 1970 19 727728. (https://doi.org/10.2337/diab.19.10.727)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30

    Felig P, Marliss E, Cahill GF Jr. Plasma amino acid levels and insulin secretion in obesity. New England Journal of Medicine 1969 281 811816. (https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM196910092811503)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31

    Glynn EL, Piner LW, Huffman KM, Slentz CA, Elliot-Penry L, AbouAssi H, White PJ, Bain JR, Muehlbauer MJ & Ilkayeva OR et al.Impact of combined resistance and aerobic exercise training on branched-chain amino acid turnover, glycine metabolism and insulin sensitivity in overweight humans. Diabetologia 2015 58 23242335. (https://doi.org/10.1007/s00125-015-3705-6)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32

    Takashina C, Tsujino I, Watanabe T, Sakaue S, Ikeda D, Yamada A, Sato T, Ohira H, Otsuka Y & Oyama-Manabe N et al.Associations among the plasma amino acid profile, obesity, and glucose metabolism in Japanese adults with normal glucose tolerance. Nutrition and Metabolism 2016 13 5. (https://doi.org/10.1186/s12986-015-0059-5)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33

    Wahren J, Felig P, Cerasi E, Luft R. Splanchnic and peripheral glucose and amino acid metabolism in diabetes mellitus. Journal of Clinical Investigation 1972 51 18701878. (https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI106989)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34

    Drabkova P, Sanderova J, Kovarik J, kandar R. An assay of selected serum amino acids in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine 2015 24 447451. (https://doi.org/10.17219/acem/29223)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35

    Menni C, Fauman E, Erte I, Perry JR, Kastenmuller G, Shin SY, Petersen AK, Hyde C, Psatha M & Ward KJ et al.Biomarkers for type 2 diabetes and impaired fasting glucose using a nontargeted metabolomics approach. Diabetes 2013 62 42704276. (https://doi.org/10.2337/db13-0570)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36

    Yang P, Hu W, Fu Z, Sun L, Zhou Y, Gong Y, Yang T, Zhou H. The positive association of branched-chain amino acids and metabolic dyslipidemia in Chinese Han population. Lipids in Health and Disease 2016 15 120. (https://doi.org/10.1186/s12944-016-0291-7)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37

    Menge BA, Schrader H, Ritter PR, Ellrichmann M, Uhl W, Schmidt WE, Meier JJ. Selective amino acid deficiency in patients with impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes. Regulatory Peptides 2010 160 7580. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.regpep.2009.08.001)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38

    Midthjell K, Holmen J, Bjørndal A, Lund-Larsen G. Is questionnaire information valid in the study of a chronic disease such as diabetes? The Nord-Trøndelag Diabetes Study. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 1992 46 537542. (https://doi.org/10.1136/jech.46.5.537)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39

    Oses M, Margareto Sanchez J, Portillo MP, Aguilera CM, Labayen I. Circulating miRNAs as biomarkers of obesity and obesity-associated comorbidities in children and adolescents: a systematic review. Nutrients 2019 11 2890. (https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11122890)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Supplementary Materials

 

     European Society of Endocrinology

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  • View in gallery

    (A) Differentially expressed mature miRNAs. Shown are miRNAs that were significantly detected as differentially expressed between the groups using limma-voom. The heatmap shows the average z-score normalized expression of the miRNAs within the groups. The comparisons for which the different miRNAs were detected as significant are shown as a separate heatmap in which red and gray color indicate that the miRNA difference is significant and non-significant, respectively. (B) Similar as in (A) for isomiRs. The isomiR-sequence for the different miRNAs is indicated as part of the miRNA ID. See (A) for explanation of the heatmaps.

  • View in gallery

    Differentially expressed other sRNAs. Shown are sRNAs that were significantly detected as differentially expressed between the groups using limma-voom. The IDs correspond to the RNACentral IDs. The comparisons for which the different sRNAs were detected as significant are shown as a separate heatmap in which red and gray color indicate that the sRNA difference is significant and non-significant, respectively.

  • View in gallery

    ROC-curves for the leave-one-out cross-validated models for the miRNA- (A and B), isomiR- (C, D and E) and other sRNA- (F and G) signatures. Shown are only signatures that passed the leave-one-out cross-validation. The signatures include those RNAs that were significant for the different group-comparisons after adjusting for multiple testing (see Methods for details on the leave-one-out cross-validation).

  • 1

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  • 2

    Tuomi T, Groop LC, Zimmet PZ, Rowley MJ, Knowles W, Mackay IR. Antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase reveal latent autoimmune diabetes mellitus in adults with a non-insulin-dependent onset of disease. Diabetes 1993 42 359362. (https://doi.org/10.2337/diab.42.2.359)

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  • 3

    Turner R, Stratton I, Horton V, Manley S, Zimmet P, Mackay IR, Shattock M, Bottazzo GF, Holman R. UKPDS 25: autoantibodies to islet-cell cytoplasm and glutamic acid decarboxylase for prediction of insulin requirement in type 2 diabetes. UK Prospective Diabetes Study Group. Lancet 1997 350 12881293. (https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(9703062-6)

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  • 4

    Heneberg P, Simcikova D, Cechakova M, Rypackova B, Kucera P, Andel M. Autoantibodies against ZnT8 are rare in Central-European LADA patients and absent in MODY patients, including those positive for other autoantibodies. Journal of Diabetes and its Complications 2019 33 4652. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2018.10.004)

    • Crossref
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  • 5

    Schloot NC, Pham MN, Hawa MI, Pozzilli P, Scherbaum WA, Schott M, Kolb H, Hunter S, Schernthaner G & Thivolet C et al.Inverse relationship Between organ-specific autoantibodies and systemic immune mediators in type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes: action LADA 11. Diabetes Care 2016 39 19321939. (https://doi.org/10.2337/dc16-0293)

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  • 6

    Buzzetti R, Di Pietro S, Giaccari A, Petrone A, Locatelli M, Suraci C, Capizzi M, Arpi ML, Bazzigaluppi E & Dotta F et al.High titer of autoantibodies to GAD identifies a specific phenotype of adult-onset autoimmune diabetes. Diabetes Care 2007 30 932938. (https://doi.org/10.2337/dc06-1696)

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  • 7

    Tuomi T, Carlsson A, Li H, Isomaa B, Miettinen A, Nilsson A, Nilsson M, Ehrnström BO, Forsén A & Snickars B et al.Clinical and genetic characteristics of type 2 diabetes with and without GAD antibodies. Diabetes 1999 48 150 15 7. (https://doi.org/10.2337/diabetes.48.1.150)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8

    Pettersen E, Skorpen F, Kvaloy K, Midthjell K, Grill V. Genetic heterogeneity in latent autoimmune diabetes is linked to various degrees of autoimmune activity: results from the Nord-Trondelag Health Study. Diabetes 2010 59 302310. (https://doi.org/10.2337/db09-0923)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9

    Zampetti S, Campagna G, Tiberti C, Songini M, Arpi ML, De Simone G, Cossu E, Cocco L, Osborn J & Bosi E et al.High GADA titer increases the risk of insulin requirement in LADA patients: a 7-year follow-up (NIRAD study 7). European Journal of Endocrinology 2014 171 697704. (https://doi.org/10.1530/EJE-14-0342)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10

    Sorgjerd EP, Skorpen F, Kvaloy K, Midthjell K, Grill V. Time dynamics of autoantibodies are coupled to phenotypes and add to the heterogeneity of autoimmune diabetes in adults: the HUNT study, Norway. Diabetologia 2012 55 13101318. (https://doi.org/10.1007/s00125-012-2463-y)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11

    Balasubramanyam A, Nalini R, Hampe CS, Maldonado M. Syndromes of ketosis-prone diabetes mellitus. Endocrine Reviews 2008 29 292302. (https://doi.org/10.1210/er.2007-0026)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12

    Nadhem O, Nakhla E, Smalligan RD. Diabetic ketoacidosis as first presentation of latent autoimmune diabetes in adult. Case Reports in Medicine 2015 2015 821397. (https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/821397)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13

    Keller A, Rounge T, Backes C, Ludwig N, Gislefoss R, Leidinger P, Langseth H, Meese E. Sources to variability in circulating human miRNA signatures. RNA Biology 2017 14 17911798. (https://doi.org/10.1080/15476286.2017.1367888)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14

    Zampetaki A, Kiechl S, Drozdov I, Willeit P, Mayr U, Prokopi M, Mayr A, Weger S, Oberhollenzer F & Bonora E et al.Plasma microRNA profiling reveals loss of endothelial miR-126 and other microRNAs in type 2 diabetes. Circulation Research 2010 107 810817. (https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.110.226357)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15

    Seyhan AA, Nunez Lopez YO, Xie H, Yi F, Mathews C, Pasarica M, Pratley RE. Pancreas-enriched miRNAs are altered in the circulation of subjects with diabetes: a pilot cross-sectional study. Scientific Reports 2016 6 31479. (https://doi.org/10.1038/srep31479)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16

    Yu K, Huang Z, Zhou J, Lang J, Wang Y, Yin X, Zhou Y, Zhao D. Transcriptome profiling of microRNAs associated with latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA). Scientific Reports 2019 9 11347. (https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-47726-z)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17

    Krokstad S, Langhammer A, Hveem K, Holmen TL, Midthjell K, Stene TR, Bratberg G, Heggland J, Holmen J. Cohort profile: the HUNT study, Norway. International Journal of Epidemiology 2013 42 968977. (https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dys095)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18

    Mjelle R, Sellæg K, Sætrom P, Thommesen L, Sjursen W, Hofsli E. Identification of metastasis-associated microRNAs in serum from rectal cancer patients. Oncotarget 2017 8 9007790089. (https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.21412)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19

    Kozomara A, Griffiths-Jones S. miRBase: annotating high confidence microRNAs using deep sequencing data. Nucleic Acids Research 2014 42 D68D73. (https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkt1181)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20

    The RNAcentral Consortium. RNAcentral: a hub of information for non-coding RNA sequences. Nucleic Acids Research 2019 47 D1250D1251. (https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gky1206)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21

    Law CW, Chen Y, Shi W, Smyth GK. voom: precision weights unlock linear model analysis tools for RNA-seq read counts. Genome Biology 2014 15 R29. (https://doi.org/10.1186/gb-2014-15-2-r29)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22

    Senese R, Cioffi F, Petito G, de Lange P, Russo A, Goglia F, Lanni A, Potenza N. miR-22-3p is involved in gluconeogenic pathway modulated by 3,5-diiodo-L-thyronine (T2). Scientific Reports 2019 9 16645. (https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-53019-2)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23

    Vasu S, Kumano K, Darden CM, Rahman I, Lawrence MC, Naziruddin B. MicroRNA signatures as future biomarkers for diagnosis of diabetes states. Cells 2019 8 1533. (https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8121533)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24

    van de Bunt M, Gaulton KJ, Parts L, Moran I, Johnson PR, Lindgren CM, Ferrer J, Gloyn AL, McCarthy MI. The miRNA profile of human pancreatic islets and beta-cells and relationship to type 2 diabetes pathogenesis. PLoS ONE 2013 8 e55272. (https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055272)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25

    Poy MN, Eliasson L, Krutzfeldt J, Kuwajima S, Ma X, Macdonald PE, Pfeffer S, Tuschl T, Rajewsky N & Rorsman P et al.A pancreatic islet-specific microRNA regulates insulin secretion. Nature 2004 432 226230. (https://doi.org/10.1038/nature03076)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26

    Erener S, Mojibian M, Fox JK, Denroche HC, Kieffer TJ. Circulating miR-375 as a biomarker of beta-cell death and diabetes in mice. Endocrinology 2013 154 603608. (https://doi.org/10.1210/en.2012-1744)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27

    Grieco FA, Sebastiani G, Juan-Mateu J, Villate O, Marroqui L, Ladriere L, Tugay K, Regazzi R, Bugliani M & Marchetti P et al.MicroRNAs miR-23a-3p, miR-23b-3p, and miR-149-5p regulate the expression of proapoptotic BH3-only proteins DP5 and PUMA in human pancreatic beta-cells. Diabetes 2017 66 100112. (https://doi.org/10.2337/db16-0592)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28

    Arroyo MN, Green JA, Cnop M, Igoillo-Esteve M. tRNA biology in the pathogenesis of diabetes: role of genetic and environmental factors. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 2021 22 496. (https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020496)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29

    Felig P, Marliss E, Ohman JL, Cahill CF Jr. Plasma amino acid levels in diabetic ketoacidosis. Diabetes 1970 19 727728. (https://doi.org/10.2337/diab.19.10.727)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30

    Felig P, Marliss E, Cahill GF Jr. Plasma amino acid levels and insulin secretion in obesity. New England Journal of Medicine 1969 281 811816. (https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM196910092811503)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31

    Glynn EL, Piner LW, Huffman KM, Slentz CA, Elliot-Penry L, AbouAssi H, White PJ, Bain JR, Muehlbauer MJ & Ilkayeva OR et al.Impact of combined resistance and aerobic exercise training on branched-chain amino acid turnover, glycine metabolism and insulin sensitivity in overweight humans. Diabetologia 2015 58 23242335. (https://doi.org/10.1007/s00125-015-3705-6)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32

    Takashina C, Tsujino I, Watanabe T, Sakaue S, Ikeda D, Yamada A, Sato T, Ohira H, Otsuka Y & Oyama-Manabe N et al.Associations among the plasma amino acid profile, obesity, and glucose metabolism in Japanese adults with normal glucose tolerance. Nutrition and Metabolism 2016 13 5. (https://doi.org/10.1186/s12986-015-0059-5)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33

    Wahren J, Felig P, Cerasi E, Luft R. Splanchnic and peripheral glucose and amino acid metabolism in diabetes mellitus. Journal of Clinical Investigation 1972 51 18701878. (https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI106989)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34

    Drabkova P, Sanderova J, Kovarik J, kandar R. An assay of selected serum amino acids in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine 2015 24 447451. (https://doi.org/10.17219/acem/29223)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35

    Menni C, Fauman E, Erte I, Perry JR, Kastenmuller G, Shin SY, Petersen AK, Hyde C, Psatha M & Ward KJ et al.Biomarkers for type 2 diabetes and impaired fasting glucose using a nontargeted metabolomics approach. Diabetes 2013 62 42704276. (https://doi.org/10.2337/db13-0570)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36

    Yang P, Hu W, Fu Z, Sun L, Zhou Y, Gong Y, Yang T, Zhou H. The positive association of branched-chain amino acids and metabolic dyslipidemia in Chinese Han population. Lipids in Health and Disease 2016 15 120. (https://doi.org/10.1186/s12944-016-0291-7)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37

    Menge BA, Schrader H, Ritter PR, Ellrichmann M, Uhl W, Schmidt WE, Meier JJ. Selective amino acid deficiency in patients with impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes. Regulatory Peptides 2010 160 7580. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.regpep.2009.08.001)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38

    Midthjell K, Holmen J, Bjørndal A, Lund-Larsen G. Is questionnaire information valid in the study of a chronic disease such as diabetes? The Nord-Trøndelag Diabetes Study. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 1992 46 537542. (https://doi.org/10.1136/jech.46.5.537)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39

    Oses M, Margareto Sanchez J, Portillo MP, Aguilera CM, Labayen I. Circulating miRNAs as biomarkers of obesity and obesity-associated comorbidities in children and adolescents: a systematic review. Nutrients 2019 11 2890. (https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11122890)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation