OBJECTIVE: Peptidyl and non-peptidyl synthetic GH secretagogues (GHS) possess significant GH-, prolactin (PRL)- and ACTH/cortisol-releasing activity after i.v. and even p.o. administration, acting via specific hypothalamo-pituitary receptors in both animals and humans. The hexapeptide hexarelin (HEX) is a paradigmatic GHS whose activities have been widely studied in humans. The heptapeptide Ala-His-d-2-methyl-Trp-Ala-Trp-d-Phe-Lys-NH(2) (alexamorelin, ALEX) is a new synthetic molecule which inhibits GHS binding in vitro, but its endocrine activity has never been studied in humans. DESIGN: In six young adults we studied the effects of 1.0 and 2.0 microgram/kg i.v. ALEX or HEX on GH, PRL, ACTH, cortisol and aldosterone levels and those of 20mg p.o. ( approximately 300 microgram/kg) on GH levels. RESULTS: Basal GH, PRL, ACTH, cortisol and aldosterone levels in all testing sessions were similar. ALEX and HEX (1.0 and 2.0 microgram/kg i.v.) induced the same dose-dependent increase of GH and PRL levels. Both ALEX and HEX induced a dose-dependent increase of ACTH and cortisol levels. The ACTH and cortisol responses to the highest ALEX dose were significantly higher than those after HEX. Aldosterone levels significantly increased after both i.v. ALEX doses, but not after HEX. The GH response to 20mg p.o. ALEX was higher, though not significantly, than that to the same HEX dose. CONCLUSION: ALEX, a new GHS, shows the same GH-releasing activity as HEX. On the other hand, ALEX seems endowed with an ACTH-releasing activity more marked than that of HEX; this evidence could explain the significant increase of aldosterone levels after its i.v. administration.
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