Imura H, Fukata J. Endocrine–paracrine interaction in communication between the immune and endocrine systems. Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in inflammation. Eur J Endocrinol 1994;130:32–7. ISSN 0804–4643
There are bidirectional communications between the immune and endocrine systems. Cytokines produced in inflammatory foci cause changes in the endocrine system, including activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Hormones produced in the endocrine system, especially glucocorticoids, affect the immune system to modulate its function. This is an important endocrine system for the defence mechanism. In addition, bacterial lipopolysaccharide produces cytokines in the brain and endocrine organs which are considered to act through the paracrine mechanism to regulate the HPA axis. Endocrine–paracrine interaction is important for the defence mechanism of the organism.
Hiroo Imura, Kyoto University School of Medicine, Yoshida Honmachi Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-01, Japan