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You-Cheol Hwang, Hong-Yup Ahn, Sung-Woo Park, and Cheol-Young Park


HDLs have many diverse functions. The goal of this study was to determine the association of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) with the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). In particular, this study determined the association between the ratio of HDL-C to apoA-I (HA) and incident T2D.

Design and methods

A total of 27 988 subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) (18 266 men and 9722 women) aged 21–91 years (mean age 40.7 years) were followed for a mean duration of 2.81 years.


Study subjects were divided into quartiles according to the baseline HA ratio. Age, male sex, current smoking, BMI, waist circumference, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein decreased across the quartiles, and all metabolic profiles, including blood pressure, fasting glucose, insulin resistance as determined by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and lipid measurements such as total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, non-HDL-C, and apoB, improved as the HA ratio increased. In addition, incident cases of T2D decreased as the HA ratio increased, independent of age, sex, BMI, current smoking, systolic blood pressure, HbA1c, fasting serum insulin, family history of diabetes, and serum triglyceride concentrations (HR (95% CI) of fourth quartile vs first quartile; 0.76 (0.67–0.86), P<0.0001).


A higher HA ratio was associated with favorable metabolic profiles and a lower risk of T2D development in subjects with IFG.

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Ji Eun Jun, Mira Kang, Sang-Man Jin, Kyunga Kim, You-Cheol Hwang, In-Kyung Jeong, and Jae Hyeon Kim


We aimed to investigate the interaction of reduced skeletal muscle mass and abdominal obesity on coronary artery calcification (CAC).

Design and methods

A total of 19 728 adults free of cardiovascular disease (CVD) who contemporaneously underwent cardiac tomography and bioelectrical impedance analysis were enrolled in a cross-sectional and longitudinal cohort. Skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) was calculated using the following formula: SMI (%) = total appendicular muscle mass (kg)/body weight (kg) × 100 according to sex. CAC presence or incidence was defined as CAC score > 0, and CAC progression was defined as √CAC score (follow-up) – √CAC score (baseline)>2.5. Pre-sarcopenia was defined as SMI ≤ −1.0 s.d. of the sex-specific mean of a young reference group. Abdominal obesity was defined as waist circumference ≥ 90 cm for men and ≥85 cm for women. All individuals were further classified into four groups: normal, abdominal obesity alone, pre-sarcopenia alone, and pre-sarcopenic obesity.


Individuals with pre-sarcopenic obesity showed the highest adjusted odds ratio (AOR) for CAC presence (AOR 2.16, 95% CI : 1.98–2.36, P < 0.001) as well as total CAC incidence and progression (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.54, 95% CI: 1.37–1.75, P < 0.001), compared with normal individuals. Pre-sarcopenic obesity significantly increased CAC incidence and progression compared to either pre-sarcopenia or abdominal obesity alone.


Pre-sarcopenia and abdominal obesity together were significantly associated with a higher CAC presence and increased risk of CAC incidence and progression, independent of traditional CVD risk factors.