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Xiong-Fei Pan, Yichao Huang, Xinping Li, Yi Wang, Yi Ye, Huan Chen, Matti Marklund, Ying Wen, Yan Liu, Huayan Zeng, Xiaorong Qi, Xue Yang, Chun-Xia Yang, Ge Liu, Robert A. Gibson, Shunqing Xu, Danxia Yu, Da Chen, Yuanyuan Li, Zhixiong Mei, An Pan, and Jason Hy Wu

Objective

We aimed to examine prospective associations between circulating fatty acids in early pregnancy and incident gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) among Chinese pregnant women.

Methods

Analyses were based on two prospective nested case-control studies conducted in western China (336 GDM cases and 672 matched controls) and central China (305 cases and 305 matched controls). Fasting plasma fatty acids in early pregnancy (gestational age at enrollment: 10.4 weeks [standard deviation, 2.0]) and 13.2 weeks [1.0], respectively) were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and GDM was diagnosed based on the International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Groups criteria during 24-28 weeks of gestation. Multiple metabolic biomarkers (HOMA-IR [homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance], HbA1c, c-peptide, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, adiponectin, leptin, and blood lipids) were additionally measured among 672 non-GDM controls at enrollment.

Results

Higher levels of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) 14:0 (pooled odds ratio, 1.41 for each 1-standard deviation increase; 95% confidence interval, 1.25, 1.59) and 16:0 (1.19; 1.05, 1.35) were associated with higher odds of GDM. Higher levels of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) 18:2n-6 was strongly associated with lower odds of GDM (0.69; 0.60, 0.80). In non-GDM pregnant women, higher SFAs 14:0 and 16:0 but lower n-6 PUFA 18:2n-6 were generally correlated with unfavorable metabolic profiles.

Conclusions

We documented adverse associations of 14:0 and 16:0 but a protective association of 18:2n-6 with GDM among Chinese pregnant women. Our findings highlight the distinct roles of specific fatty acids in the onset of GDM.

Free access

Shunming Zhang, Yeqing Gu, Liu Wang, Qing Zhang, Li Liu, Min Lu, Ge Meng, Zhanxin Yao, Hongmei Wu, Yang Xia, Xue Bao, Honglei Wang, Hongbin Shi, Shaomei Sun, Xing Wang, Ming Zhou, Qiyu Jia, Kun Song, Huiling Xiang, and Kaijun Niu

Background and Aims

The protective effect of garlic against nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been reported in animal studies. However, in humans, the association between garlic consumption and NAFLD is unclear. The study sought to explore the association between habitual raw garlic intake and newly diagnosed NAFLD among Chinese adults.

Methods

We performed a study of 11,326 men and 12,780 women aged 20–90 years. Habitual food intake was assessed using a validated and standardized 100-item food frequency questionnaire. Diagnosis of NAFLD was based on the liver ultrasonography and self-reported alcohol intake. Multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of raw garlic intake with newly diagnosed NAFLD.

Results

The prevalence of newly diagnosed NAFLD was 28.9% in men and 10.1% in women, respectively. In men, the fully adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of having NAFLD across increasing frequency of raw garlic intake were 1.00 (reference) for <1 time/week, 0.81 (0.73, 0.90) for 1–3 times/week, 0.66 (0.54, 0.80) for 4–6 times/week, and 0.71 (0.55, 0.90) for ≥7 times/week (P for trend <0.0001). The odds ratio for NAFLD associated with each 1 g of raw garlic/1000 kcal was 0.93 (0.90, 0.97) in men. In women, no significant association between raw garlic intake and NAFLD was identified. These associations between raw garlic intake and NAFLD were consistent in several sensitivity analyses.

Conclusions

Frequent consumption of raw garlic is inversely associated with NAFLD in Chinese men. Further investigations are needed to confirm this finding.

Open access

Bing-Li Liu, Shao-Ying Yang, Wei Liu, Li-Qiong Xue, Xia Chen, Chun-Ming Pan, Zhao-Hui Gu, Ming Zhan, Xiao-Mei Zhang, Jun Liang, Guan-Qi Gao, Wen-Hua Du, Guo-Yue Yuan, Ru Ying, Shuang-Xia Zhao, and Huai-Dong Song

Background

Convincing evidence has demonstrated the association of TSH receptor (TSHR) with Graves' disease (GD) in the Chinese Han population.

Objective

The aim of this study was to identify the causal variants for GD in the region encompassing TSHR by a refining association study.

Design and methods

GD patients (1536) and 1516 sex-matched controls were recruited in the first stage, and an additional 3832 GD patients and 3426 sex-matched controls were recruited in the replication stage. Genotyping was performed using Illumina Human660-Quad BeadChips or TaqMan single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) Genotyping Assays and the Fluidigm EP1 platform.

Results

When the results of regression analysis for 74 genotyped SNPs and 922 imputed SNPs in the first-stage cohort were combined, rs179243 and rs3783949 were the probable susceptibility SNPs associated with GD in TSHR. Eleven SNPs, including rs179243 and rs3783949, were selected to further refine the association in the replication study. Finally, rs12101261 and rs179243 were confirmed as independent GD susceptibility variants in the replication and combined populations. Further, we also found that the rate of persistent TSHR autoantibody positivity (pTRAb+) was significantly higher in the GD patients with the susceptible genotypes rs12101261 or rs179243 than in the GD patients carrying the protective genotypes, after the GD patients had been treated for more than 1 year.

Conclusions

These findings indicate that rs12101261 and rs179243 are the possible causal SNPs for GD susceptibility in the TSHR gene and could serve as genetic markers to predict the outcome of pTRAb+ in GD patients.