The purpose of this study was to investigate the distribution of the A986S and R990G polymorphisms of the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR) gene in the Chinese population and whether there is an association between genetic variants and the risk of developing primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and its associated clinical phenotypes.
A total of 164 Chinese Han PHPT patients (M/F: 51/113) and 230 healthy controls (M/F: 50/180) were enrolled. The common clinical parameters of PHPT patients including biochemical markers, bone mineral density (BMD), kidney stone occurrence, and pathology results were analyzed. Genotyping was conducted for both the patients and controls, and it was carried out using standard procedures.
The R990G variant was more frequently present than the A986S variant in this group of Chinese PHPT patients. The R allele increased the risk of PHPT (odds ratio=1.134, 95% CI: 1.008, 1.277, and P=0.036). Patients with either the RR or RG genotype had lower blood calcium levels and higher alkaline phosphate levels than patients with the GG genotype. The lumbar BMD T-score was −2.20 (−2.63, −0.32) in patients with the GG genotype, and it was significantly lower in patients with the RR+RG genotype (−2.53 (−3.70, −1.72) P=0.036). Patients with the R allele had a significantly higher incidence of hyperplasia (25.0%) and carcinomas (7.1%) than those with the GG genotype (5.3 and 0% respectively; P=0.025). The prevalence of osteoporosis and parathyroid carcinomas was higher in Chinese PHPT patients with the R allele.
The R990G polymorphism is most frequently present in the Chinese population and among patients with PHPT. Additional studies in the Chinese population are needed to elaborate the relationship between genetics and PHPT.