Bin Wang, Xiaofei An, Xiaohong Shi and Jin-an Zhang
Previous studies investigating the risk of suicide in diabetes patients reported controversial findings. We did a systematic review and meta-analysis to comprehensively estimate the risk and incidence rate of suicide in diabetic patients.
PubMed, EMBASE and PsycINFO were searched for eligible studies. Random-effects meta-analysis was used to calculate the relative risk (RR) and the incidence rate of suicide in diabetes patients. We also calculated the proportion of deaths attributable to suicide among diabetes patients.
54 studies were finally included, including 28 studies on the suicide risk associated with diabetes, 47 studies on the incidence rate of suicide and 45 studies on the proportion of deaths attributable to suicide. Meta-analysis showed that diabetes could significantly increase the risk of suicide (RR = 1.56; 95% CI: 1.29–1.89; P < 0.001). Subgroup analysis showed that the RR of suicide associated with type 1 diabetes was 2.25 (95% CI: 1.50–3.38; P < 0.001). The pooled incidence rate of suicide in patients with diabetes was 2.35 per 10 000 person-years (95% CI: 1.51–3.64). The pooled proportions of long-term deaths attributable to suicide in type 1 diabetes patients and type 2 diabetes patients were 7.7% (95% CI: 6.0–9.8) and 1.3% (95% CI: 0.6–2.6), respectively.
This meta-analysis suggests that diabetes can significantly increase the risk of suicide. Suicide has an obvious contribution to mortality in diabetic patients, especially among type 1 diabetes patients. Effective strategies to decrease suicide risk and improve mental health outcomes in diabetes patients are needed.
Guodong Xu, Dingyun You, Liping Wong, Donghui Duan, Fanqian Kong, Xiaohong Zhang, Jinshun Zhao, Wenhua Xing, Liyuan Han and Li Li
Previous studies have shown sex-specific differences in all-cause and CHD mortality in type 2 diabetes. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to provide a global picture of the estimated influence of type 2 diabetes on the risk of all-cause and CHD mortality in women vs men.
We systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science for studies published from their starting dates to Aug 7, 2018. The sex-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and their pooled ratio (women vs men) of all-cause and CHD mortality associated with type 2 diabetes were obtained through an inverse variance-weighted random-effects meta-analysis. Subgroup analyses were used to explore the potential sources of heterogeneity.
The 35 analyzed prospective cohort studies included 2 314 292 individuals, among whom 254 038 all-cause deaths occurred. The pooled women vs men ratio of the HRs for all-cause and CHD mortality were 1.17 (95% CI: 1.12–1.23, I
2 = 81.6%) and 1.97 (95% CI: 1.49–2.61, I
2 = 86.4%), respectively. The pooled estimate of the HR for all-cause mortality was approximately 1.30 in articles in which the duration of follow-up was longer than 10 years and 1.10 in articles in which the duration of follow-up was less than 10 years. The pooled HRs for all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes was 2.33 (95% CI: 2.02–2.69) in women and 1.91 (95% CI: 1.72–2.12) in men, compared with their healthy counterparts.
The effect of diabetes on all-cause and CHD mortality is approximately 17 and 97% greater, respectively, for women than for men.