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Free access

Rong Ju, Wei Wu, Juan Fei, Yufeng Qin, Qiuqin Tang, Di Wu, Yankai Xia, Jie Wu, and Xinru Wang

Objective

To assess whether single nucleotide polymorphisms of HSD17B5 (AKR1C3) (rs1937845 and rs12529) and HSD17B6 (rs898611) are associated with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in a Chinese population.

Design

A case–control study was conducted to investigate the relation between H S D17B5 and H S D17B 6 polymorphisms and PCOS.

Methods

In this study, 335 patients with PCOS and 354 controls were recruited. The genotypes of HSD17B5 (rs1937845 and rs12529) and HSD17B6 (rs898611) were detected by the TaqMan method.

Results and conclusions

We found that the genotypic frequencies of the rs1937845 polymorphism were different in subjects with PCOS compared with control, with the CT genotype being more commonly found in patients with PCOS than in controls (P=0.005). We observed a significantly 1.74-fold higher risk of CT genotype in the polymorphism rs1937845 in women with PCOS vs the control group (adjusted odds ratio (OR), 1.74; 95% CI=1.19–2.54; P=0.005). A similar, significant 1.47-fold higher risk (adjusted OR, 1.47; 95% CI=1.07–2.03; P=0.018) was demonstrated for T allele of polymorphism rs1937845 associated with PCOS. In patients with PCOS, the rs12529 (G>C) and rs1937845 (C>T) polymorphisms were strongly associated with the high level of testosterone. The TT carriers of polymorphism rs1937845 had a significantly increased homeostatic model assessment-B% (HOMA-B%) (P=0.045) and that might be associated with the high risk of insulin resistance. However, no significant difference was found in genotype or allele distributions of the polymorphisms rs12529 of HSD17B5 and rs898611 of HSD17B6 between patients with PCOS and controls. Additionally, the two polymorphisms of HSD17B5 are associated with hyperandrogenemia in patients with PCOS. In conclusion, our findings showed a significant statistical association between HSD17B5 rs1937845 and PCOS risk in Chinese women. The CT genotype and T allele frequency are influenced significantly to a higher extent in patients with PCOS than controls. Further studies are needed to confirm the results and find out the exact molecular mechanism of the polymorphism on the risk of hyperandrogenemia and PCOS.

Free access

Yuan-Yuei Chen, Tung-Wei Kao, Chung-Ching Wang, Chen-Jung Wu, Yi-Chao Zhou, and Wei-Liang Chen

Background

Cigarette smoking is a risk factor of osteoporosis and bone fracture. Tobacco smoke contains several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Thus, we hypothesized that environmental polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure is associated with bone loss and fracture risk. The present study examined the association between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure and bone turnover in the general adult population.

Methods

A total of 1408 eligible participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2001–2006) were included in this cross-sectional analysis. The levels of urinary N-telopeptide and serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, which are biomarkers of bone resorption and formation, respectively, were assessed. Meanwhile, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure was evaluated using the concentrations of urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites. The association between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposures and N-telopeptide, and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase levels was assessed using a multivariate linear regression model.

Results

All polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites except 3-phenanthrene were significantly associated with increased N-telopeptide levels (P < 0.05) after adjustment of relevant covariables. However, no significant relationship was observed between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase levels. This relationship remained significant after the participants were assessed according to sex (P < 0.05). Additionally, all polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites showed a positive association with N-telopeptide levels in participants aged <60 years (P < 0.05).

Conclusion

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure is associated with increased bone resorption among the general adult population in the United States. Further studies must assess the potential mechanisms associated with the adverse effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure on bone loss.

Free access

Jie Qiao, Bing Han, Bing-Li Liu, Wei Liu, Jia-Jun Wu, Chun-Ming Pan, He Jiang, Ting Gu, Bo-Ren Jiang, Hui Zhu, Ying-Li Lu, Wan-Ling Wu, Ming-Dao Chen, and Huai-Dong Song

Background

17α-Hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency (17OHD) caused by a mutation in the CYP17A1 gene is characterized by hypertension, hypokalemia, and abnormal development of the genitalia. The majority of CYP17A1 mutations are located in the coding sequence, and several intronic splicing site mutations have been reported.

Objective

A 2.5-year-old girl with 46,XY disordered sex development exhibited a nearly normal basal cortisol level and reduced sexual steroids. This study is aimed to explore the molecular basis and analyze its possible influence on the phenotype of the patient.

Methods and results

Mutation analysis revealed compound heterozygous CYP17A1 mutations, with c.985_987delinsAA in one allele and a synonymous substitution (c.1263G>A) in another allele. In vitro expression analysis of the allelic minigene showed that the novel nucleotide variation located in exon 8 induces a splicing signal, which results in an aberrant splicing of CYP17A1 mRNA and a missing portion of exon 8. The translation product includes the deletion of six or seven amino acids from residue position 415 without causing a frameshift. Consistent with the result of molecular modeling, functional studies in transiently transfected HEK-293T cells with the aberrantly spliced enzyme proteins showed that the deleted proteins completely abolished the enzyme activity. However, RT-PCR indicated the existence of a small fraction of normal, functionally intact enzyme, which may explain the partial masculinization of this patient.

Conclusion

This is the first description of an exonic splicing mutation in CYP17A1 relevant to the 17OHD phenotype. It also demonstrates the importance of studying synonymous change in such patients with less severe phenotype.

Restricted access

Cheng-Hsuan Tsai, Che-Wei Liao, Xue-Ming Wu, Zheng-Wei Chen, Chien-Ting Pan, Yi-Yao Chang, Bo-Ching Lee, Chia-Tung Shun, Wen-Fen Wen, Chia-Hung Chou, Vin-Cent Wu, Chi-Sheng Hung, Yen-Hung Lin, and the TAIPAI Study Group

Objective

The presence of autonomous cortisol secretion (ACS) in patients with primary aldosteronism (PA) is common and potentially associated with poor outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between ACS and vascular remodeling in PA patients.

Design and methods

We prospectively enrolled 436 PA patients from October 2006 to November 2019. ACS (defined as a cortisol level >1.8 μg/dL after a 1 mg dexamethasone suppression test) was detected in 23% of the PA patients. Propensity score matching (PSM) with age, sex, systolic and diastolic blood pressure was performed. The brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) was examined at baseline and 1 year after targeted treatment. Small arteries of periadrenal fat in 46 patients were stained with Picro Sirus red to quantify the severity of vascular fibrosis.

Results

After PSM, the PA patients with ACS had a significantly higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus, higher plasma aldosterone concentration and higher aldosterone-to-renin ratio. The baseline mean baPWV was also significantly higher in the PA patients with ACS. After multivariable regression analysis, the presence of ACS was a significant predictor of worse baseline mean baPWV (β: 235.745, 95% CI: 59.602–411.888, P = 0.010). In addition, the PA patients with ACS had worse vascular fibrosis (fibrosis area: 25.6 ± 8.4%) compared to those without ACS (fibrosis area: 19.8 ± 7.7%, P = 0.020). After 1 year of PA treatment, baPWV significantly improved in both groups.

Conclusion

The presence of ACS in PA patients is associated with worse arterial stiffness and vascular remodeling.

Free access

Mingqiang Zhu, Yangxi Li, Guanping Dong, Xuefeng Chen, Ke Huang, Wei Wu, Yangli Dai, Li Zhang, Hu Lin, Sihua Wang, Constantin Polychronakos, and Junfen Fu

Objective

Recessive WFS1 mutations are known to cause Wolfram syndrome, a very rare systemic disorder. However, they were also found in non-syndromic diabetes in Han Chinese misdiagnosed with type 1 diabetes (T1D), a molecular cause that appears to be considerably more common than the fully expressed syndrome. We aimed to better define the incidence and clinical features of non-syndromic diabetes due to recessive WFS1 mutation.

Design

We analyzed the genotype and phenotype of 320 consecutive incident Chinese pediatric diabetic patients diagnosed from 2016 to 2019 to search for non-syndromic diabetic cases due to recessive WFS1 mutation.

Methods

A cohort of 105 pancreatic autoantibody-negative patients were recruited for exome sequencing. All patients tested positive for pathogenic diallelic WFS1 mutations were examined for phenotypic features (fundoscopy, audiogram, and urine density).

Results

We found three cases of non-syndromic diabetes due to recessive WFS1 mutations (incidence = 0.94% (95% CI: 0.25–2.7%)). All three cases only had mild diabetes when diagnosed. All patients had well-conserved fasting C-peptide when diagnosed but one of them progressed to T1D-like insulin deficiency. In addition, we found a fourth case with previously undetected features of Wolfram syndrome.

Conclusions

Non-syndromic diabetes due to WFS1 mutation may be common among Chinese pediatric patients with diabetes. It is important to differentiate it from other maturity-onset diabetes in the young subtypes with similar phenotype by molecular diagnosis because of different prognosis and, potentially, therapy.

Free access

Sheng-Yin Chen, Jui-Yi Chen, Wei-Chieh Huang, Troy Hai Kiat Puar, Peng Chin Kek, Jeff S Chueh, Yen-Hung Lin, Vin-Cent Wu, and TAIPAI Study Group

Background

In patients with primary aldosteronism (PA), long-term cardiovascular and mortality outcomes after adrenalectomy vs mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA) have not been compared yet. We aim to compare the clinical outcomes of these patients after treatment.

Design and Methods

A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted by searching PubMed, Cochrane library, and Embase from no start date restriction to 18 December 2021. Our composite primary outcomes were long-term all-cause mortality and/or major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), including coronary artery disease (CAD), stroke, arrhythmia, and congestive heart failure. We adopted the random-effects model and performed subgroup analyses, meta-regression, and trial sequential analysis (TSA).

Results

A total of 9 studies with 8473 adult patients with PA (≥18 years) were enrolled. A lower incidence of composite primary outcomes was observed in the adrenalectomy group (odds ratio (OR): 0.46 (95% CI: 0.38–0.56), P < 0.001). We found a lower incidence of all-cause mortality (OR: 0.33 (95% CI: 0.15–0.73), P = 0.006) and MACE (OR: 0.55, (95% CI: 0.40–0.74), P = 0.0001) in the adrenalectomy group. The incidence of CAD (OR: 0.33 (95% CI: 0.15–0.75), P = 0.008), arrhythmias (OR: 0.46 (95% CI: 0.27–0.81), P = 0.007), and congestive heart failure (OR: 0.52 (95% CI: 0.33–0.81), P = 0.004) was also lower in adrenalectomy group. The metaregression showed patient’s age may attenuate the benefits of adrenalectomy on composite primary outcomes (coefficient: 1.084 (95% CI: 1.005–1.169), P = 0.036). TSA demonstrated that the accrued sample size and effect size were sufficiently large to draw a solid conclusion, and the advantage of adrenalectomy over MRA was constant with the chronological sequence.

Conclusions

In conclusion, adrenalectomy could be preferred over MRA for patients with PA in reducing the risk of all-cause mortality and/or MACE and should be considered as the treatment of choice. That patients with PA could get less benefit from adrenalectomy as they age warrants further investigation.

Restricted access

Wan-Chen Wu, Kang-Yung Peng, Jin-Ying Lu, Chieh-Kai Chan, Chih-Yuan Wang, Fen-Yu Tseng, Wei-Shiung Yang, Yen-Hung Lin, Po-Chih Lin, Ting-Chu Chen, Kuo-How Huang, Jeff S Chueh, and Vin-Cent Wu

Objective

Concurrent autonomous cortisol secretion (ACS) in patients with primary aldosteronism (PA) is being reported more frequently. Several somatic mutations including PRKACA, GNAS, and CTNNB1 were identified in cortisol-producing adenomas (CPAs). The presence of these mutations in unilateral PA (uPA) patients concurrent with ACS (uPA/ACS) is not well known. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of these mutations and their clinical vs pathological characteristics in uPA/ACS.

Design

This is a retrospective cohort study.

Methods

Totally 98 uPA patients from the Taiwan Primary Aldosteronism Investigation registry having overnight 1-mg dexamethasone suppression test (DST) and adrenalectomy from 2016 to 2018 were enrolled. Their adrenal tumors were tested for PRKACA, GNAS, and CTNNB1 mutations.

Results

11 patients had CPA-related mutations (7 PRKACA and 4 GNAS). The patients carrying these mutations had higher post-DST cortisol (5.6 vs 2.6 μg/dL, P = 0.003) and larger adenoma (2.2 ± 0.3 vs 1.9 ± 0.7 cm, P = 0.025). Adenomas with these mutations had a higher prevalence of non-classical uPA (72.7% vs 26.3%, P = 0.014). Numerically, slightly more complete clinical success of uPA patients with these mutations was noticed after adrenalectomy, although it was statistically non-significant. Post-DST cortisol levels, adenoma size >1.9 cm, and the interaction of adenoma size >1.9 cm with potassium level were found to be associated with the presence of these mutations.

Conclusion

Our study showed that CPA-related mutations were detected in 36.7% of uPA/ACS adenomas. The presence of these mutations was associated with higher post-DST cortisol levels, larger adenoma sizes, and a high percentage of non-classical uPA. However, these mutations did not significantly affect the clinical and biochemical outcomes after adrenalectomy of uPA/ACS patients but they showed a better trend.

Free access

Zhi-Hao Li, Pei-Dong Zhang, Qing Chen, Xiang Gao, Vincent C H Chung, Dong Shen, Xi-Ru Zhang, Wen-Fang Zhong, Qing-Mei Huang, Dan Liu, Pei-Liang Chen, Wei-Qi Song, Xian-Bo Wu, Virginia Byers Kraus, and Chen Mao

Objective

To examine the association of incident type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk with sleep factors, genetic risk, and their combination effects.

Design

Large prospective population-based cohort study.

Methods

This population-based prospective cohort study included 360 403 (mean (s.d.) age: 56.6 (8.0) years) participants without T2D at baseline from the UK Biobank. Genetic risk was categorised as high (highest quintile), intermediate (quintiles: 2–4), and low (lowest quintile) based on a polygenic risk score for T2D. Sleep scores, including long or short sleep duration, insomnia, snoring, late chronotype, and excessive daytime sleepiness, were categorized as an unfavourable, intermediate, or favourable sleep and circadian pattern.

Results

During a median follow-up of 9.0 years, 13 120 incident T2D cases were recorded. Among the participants with an unfavourable sleep and circadian pattern, 6.96% (95% CI: 6.68–7.24%) developed T2D vs 2.37% (95% CI: 2.28–2.46%) of participants with a favourable sleep and circadian pattern (adjusted hazard ratio (HR): 1.53, 95% CI: 1.45–1.62). Of participants with a high genetic risk, 5.53% (95% CI: 5.36–5.69%) developed T2D vs 2.01% (95% CI: 1.91–2.11%) of participants with a low genetic risk (adjusted HR: 2.89, 95% CI: 2.72–3.07). The association with sleep and circadian patterns was independent of genetic risk strata. Participants in the lowest quintile with an unfavourable sleep and circadian pattern were 3.97-fold more likely to develop T2D than those in the lowest quintile with a favourable sleep and circadian pattern.

Conclusions

Sleep and circadian patterns and genetic risk were independently associated with incident T2D. These results indicate the benefits of adhering to a healthy sleep and circadian pattern in entire populations, independent of genetic risk.