Chantal Zevenbergen, Tim I M Korevaar, Andrea Schuette, Robin P Peeters, Marco Medici, Theo J Visser, Lutz Schomburg and W Edward Visser
Levels of thyroid hormone (TH) and trace elements (copper (Cu) and selenium (Se)) are important for development and function of the brain. Anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) can influence serum TH and trace element levels. As the relationship between AEDs, THs, and trace elements has not yet been studied directly, we explored these interactions.
In total 898 participants, from the Thyroid Origin of Psychomotor Retardation study designed to investigate thyroid parameters in subjects with intellectual disability (ID), had data available on serum Se, Cu, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), tri-iodothyronine (T3), reverse T3, T4, and thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG); 401 subjects were on AED treatment. Differences in trace elements according to medication usage was investigated using ANOVA, and associations between trace elements and thyroid parameters were analysed using (non-) linear regression models.
Study participants were not deficient in any of the trace elements analyzed. AED (carbamazepine, valproate and phenytoin) usage was negatively associated with serum Se and showed compound-specific associations with Cu levels. After correction for drug usage, Se was positively associated with TSH levels, negatively associated with FT4 levels, and positively with T3 levels. Cu was positively associated with T4, T3, and rT3, which was largely dependent on TBG levels.
The subjects with ID did not display profound deficiencies in trace element levels. AEDs were associated with serum Se and Cu levels, while serum Se and Cu were also associated with thyroid parameters. Further studies on the underlying mechanisms and potential clinical importance are warranted.
Edward Buitenwerf, Tijmen Korteweg, Anneke Visser, Charlotte M S C Haag, Richard A Feelders, Henri J L M Timmers, Letizia Canu, Harm R Haak, Peter H L T Bisschop, Elisabeth M W Eekhoff, Eleonora P M Corssmit, Nanda C Krak, Elise Rasenberg, Janneke van den Bergh, Jaap Stoker, Marcel J W Greuter, Robin P F Dullaart, Thera P Links and Michiel N Kerstens
A substantial proportion of all pheochromocytomas is currently detected during the evaluation of an adrenal incidentaloma. Recently, it has been suggested that biochemical testing to rule out pheochromocytoma is unnecessary in case of an adrenal incidentaloma with an unenhanced attenuation value ≤10 Hounsfield Units (HU) at computed tomography (CT).
We aimed to determine the sensitivity of the 10 HU threshold value to exclude a pheochromocytoma.
Retrospective multicenter study with systematic reassessment of preoperative unenhanced CT scans performed in patients in whom a histopathologically proven pheochromocytoma had been diagnosed. Unenhanced attenuation values were determined independently by two experienced radiologists. Sensitivity of the 10 HU threshold was calculated, and interobserver consistency was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC).
214 patients were identified harboring a total number of 222 pheochromocytomas. Maximum tumor diameter was 51 (39–74) mm. The mean attenuation value within the region of interest was 36 ± 10 HU. Only one pheochromocytoma demonstrated an attenuation value ≤10 HU, resulting in a sensitivity of 99.6% (95% CI: 97.5–99.9). ICC was 0.81 (95% CI: 0.75–0.86) with a standard error of measurement of 7.3 HU between observers.
The likelihood of a pheochromocytoma with an unenhanced attenuation value ≤10 HU on CT is very low. The interobserver consistency in attenuation measurement is excellent. Our study supports the recommendation that in patients with an adrenal incidentaloma biochemical testing for ruling out pheochromocytoma is only indicated in adrenal tumors with an unenhanced attenuation value >10 HU.