Marco Castellana, Giorgio Grani, Maija Radzina, Vito Guerra, Luca Giovanella, Maurilio Deandrea, Rose Ngu, Cosimo Durante and Pierpaolo Trimboli
Several thyroid imaging reporting and data systems (TIRADS) have been proposed to stratify the malignancy risk of thyroid nodule by ultrasound. The TIRADS by the European Thyroid Association, namely EU-TIRADS, was the last one to be published.
We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the prevalence of malignancy in each EU-TIRADS class and the performance of EU-TIRADS class 5 vs 2, 3 and 4 in detecting malignant lesions.
Four databases were searched until December 2019. Original articles reporting the performance of EU-TIRADS and adopting histology as reference standard were included. The number of malignant nodules in each class and the number of nodules classified as true/false positive/negative were extracted. A random-effects model was used for pooling data.
Seven studies were included, evaluating 5672 thyroid nodules. The prevalence of malignancy in each EU-TIRADS class was 0.5% (95% CI: 0.0–1.3), 5.9% (95% CI: 2.6–9.2), 21.4% (95% CI: 11.1–31.7), and 76.1% (95% CI: 63.7–88.5). Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, LR+, LR− and DOR of EU-TIRADS class 5 were 83.5% (95% CI: 74.5–89.8), 84.3% (95% CI: 66.2–93.7), 76.1% (95% CI: 63.7–88.5), 85.4% (95% CI: 79.1–91.8), 4.9 (95% CI: 2.9–8.2), 0.2 (95% CI: 0.1–0.3), and 24.5 (95% CI: 11.7–51.0), respectively. A further improved performance was found after excluding two studies because of limited sample size and low prevalence of malignancy in class 5.
A limited number of studies generally conducted using a retrospective design was found. Acknowledging this limitation, the performance of EU-TIRADS in stratifying the risk of thyroid nodules was high. Also, EU-TIRADS class 5 showed moderate evidence of detecting malignant lesions.
Giuseppe Vezzoli, Alfredo Scillitani, Sabrina Corbetta, Annalisa Terranegra, Elena Dogliotti, Vito Guarnieri, Teresa Arcidiacono, Vera Paloschi, Francesco Rainone, Cristina Eller-Vainicher, Loris Borghi, Antonio Nouvenne, Angela Guerra, Tiziana Meschi, Franca Allegri, Daniele Cusi, Anna Spada, David E C Cole, Geoffrey N Hendy, Donatella Spotti and Laura Soldati
Background and objective
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR) gene at the regulatory region were associated with idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis. To confirm their association with nephrolithiasis, we tested patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT).
A genotype–phenotype association study.
In all, 332 PHPT patients and 453 healthy controls were genotyped for the rs7652589 (G>A) and rs1501899 (G>A) SNPs sited in the noncoding regulatory region of the CASR gene. Allele, haplotype, and diplotype distribution were compared between PHPT patients and controls, and in stone forming and stone-free PHPT patients.
The allele frequency at rs7652589 and rs1501899 SNPs was similar in PHPT patients and controls. The A minor alleles at these two SNPs were more frequent in stone forming (n=157) than in stone-free (n=175) PHPT patients (rs7652589: 36.9 vs 27.1%, P=0.007; rs1501899: 37.1 vs 26.4%, P=0.003). Accordingly, homozygous or heterozygous PHPT patients for the AA haplotype (n=174, AA/AA or AA/GG diplotype) had an increased stone risk (odds ratio 1.83, 95% confidence interval 1.2–2.9, P=0.008). Furthermore, these PHPT patients had higher serum concentrations of ionized calcium and parathyroid hormone (1.50±0.015 mmol/l and 183±12.2 pg/ml) than patients with the GG/GG diplotype (n=145, 1.47±0.011 mmol/l (P=0.04) and 150±11.4 pg/ml (P=0.049)). Using a logistic regression model, the increase in stone risk in PHPT patients was predicted by AA/AA or AA/GG diplotype, the highest tertile of serum ionized calcium values and the lowest tertile of age.
Polymorphisms located in the regulatory region of the CASR gene may increase susceptibility of the PHPT patients to kidney stone production.