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Free access

Sonya V Galcheva, Violeta M Iotova, Yoto T Yotov, Sergio Bernasconi, and Maria E Street

Objectives

To analyze the circulating levels of proinflammatory peptides in healthy prepubertal children in relation to abdominal obesity, measured by waist circumference (WC), and to investigate their interactions with cardiometabolic risk factors.

Design and methods

A cross-sectional study of 137 healthy prepubertal children with a mean age of 8.0±0.1 years divided into three groups according to their WC as a measure of abdominal obesity: ‘normal-WC’ children (25th–75th percentile, n=48), ‘children at risk’ (75th–90th percentile, n=39), and ‘abdominally obese’ (≥90th percentile, n=50) children. Auxological measurements and blood pressure (BP) were taken. Fasting levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin 6 (IL6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), glucose, insulin, and lipid profile were measured. Insulin resistance (IR) was assessed by homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR).

Results

Abdominally obese children had significantly higher BP, insulin, HOMA-IR, total cholesterol and triglycerides (TG) compared with their normal-WC counterparts (P<0.05). HsCRP concentrations increased proportionally with the degree of abdominal obesity (r=0.443, P<0.0001), whereas IL6 and TNF-α were not significantly associated with any of the adiposity variables. After controlling for adiposity, hsCRP was significantly correlated with systolic BP (r=0.257, P=0.004), TNF-α levels were related to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C; r=−0.216, P=0.016) and TG (r=0.196, P=0.029), whereas the relationship between IL6 and HDL-C reduced its magnitude to an insignificant level (r=−0.173, P=0.055).

Conclusions

Healthy prepubertal children with abdominal obesity have associated inflammatory and cardiometabolic alterations, interacting with each other.

Open access

Irina Bacila, Nicole Freeman, Eleni Daniel, Marija Sandrk, Jillian Bryce, Salma Rashid Ali, Zehra Yavas Abalı, Navoda Atapattu, Tania A Bachega, Antonio Balsamo, Niels Birkebæk, Oliver Blankenstein, Walter Bonfig, Martine Cools, Eduardo Correa Costa, Feyza Darendeliler, Silvia Einaudi, Heba Hassan Elsedfy, Martijn Finken, Evelien Gevers, Hedi L Claahsen-van der Grinten, Tulay Guran, Ayla Güven, Sabine E. Hannema, Claire E Higham, Violeta Iotova, Hetty J. van der Kamp, Marta Korbonits, Ruth E Krone, Corina Lichiardopol, Andrea Luczay, Berenice Bilharinho Mendonca, Tatjana Milenkovic, Mirela C Miranda, Klaus Mohnike, Uta Neumann, Rita Ortolano, Sukran Poyrazoglu, Ajay Thankamony, Jeremy W Tomlinson, Ana Vieites, Liat de Vries, S Faisal Ahmed, Richard J Ross, and Nils P Krone

Objective: Despite published guidelines no unified approach to hormone replacement in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) exists. We aimed to explore geographical and temporal variations in the treatment with glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids in CAH.

Design: This retrospective multi-center study, including 31 centers (16 countries), analyzed data from the International-CAH Registry.

Methods: Data was collected from 461 patients aged 0-18 years with classic 21-hydroxylase deficiency (54.9% females) under follow-up between 1982 – 2018. Type, dose and timing of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid replacement was analyzed from 4174 patient visits.

Results: The most frequently used glucocorticoid was hydrocortisone (87.6%). Overall, there were significant differences between age groups with regards to daily hydrocortisone-equivalent dose for body surface, with the lowest dose (median with interquartile range) of 12.0 (10.0 – 14.5) mg/ m2/ day at age 1 - 8 years and the highest dose of 14.0 (11.6 - 17.4) mg/ m2/ day at age 12-18 years. Glucocorticoid doses decreased after 2010 in patients 0-8 years (p<0.001) and remained unchanged in patients aged 8-18 years. Fludrocortisone was used in 92% of patients, with relative doses decreasing with age. A wide variation was observed among countries with regards to all aspects of steroid hormone replacement.

Conclusions: Data from the I-CAH Registry suggests international variations in hormone replacement therapy, with a tendency to treatment with high doses in children.