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Vasiliki Vasileiou, Eleni Kyratzoglou, Stavroula A Paschou, Miltiades Kyprianou, and Eleni Anastasiou


To investigate a probable impact of seasons on the diagnosis of GDM, as well as the specific effect of the environmental temperature on the diagnosis of this clinical entity.

Patients and methods

Two observational studies, one retrospective and one prospective, were conducted in a referral center. Study A included retrospectively 7618 pregnant women who underwent a 3-h 100 g OGTT during the 3rd trimester of gestation. Study B prospectively included 768 pregnant women tested in the 3rd trimester of gestation with a 75 g OGTT. Temperature was recorded every day at 09:00 h.


Retrospective Study A: GDM prevalence differed significantly by season: winter = 28.1%, summer = 39.2%, spring = 32.4% and autumn = 32.4% (P < 0.0001). The odds ratio for being diagnosed with GDM was much higher during summer 1.65 (95% CI: 1.43–1.90), with spring and autumn following with 1.23 (95% CI: 1.08–1.39) compared to winter. Glucose levels during OGTT were measured: significantly increased blood glucose values were observed at 60, 120 and 180 min in summer, which remained significant after adjustment for age, gestational age, BMI, weight gain during pregnancy and blood pressure. Prospective Study B: At temperatures above 25°C, the average glucose 60-min and 120-min levels were increased. The relative risk for abnormal glucose values at 60 min, when the environmental temperature increased over 25°C, was 2.2 (1.5–3.3).


GDM prevalence in Greece presents seasonal variation, with higher risk during summer due to post glucose load level variations. These variations could be attributed to differences in environmental temperature.

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Maria Alevizaki, Katerina Saltiki, Gianna Rentziou, Alexandra Papathoma, Leda Sarika, Vasiliki Vasileiou, and Eleni Anastasiou


Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) has varying clinical course. We assessed trends in MTC presentation during the last 34 years.


Retrospective study.


One hundred and fifty one patients (44.4% males) were followed for 0.9–34 years. Patients were classified according to year of diagnosis: group 1, 1977–2000 (n=53) and group 2, 2001–2011 (n=98). Extent of disease at diagnosis, during follow-up, number of surgeries, and pre- and postoperative calcitonin levels were recorded.


In total, 48.34% reported family history of MTC. Group 1 had larger tumors (median 1.70 (intraquartile range (IQR) 1.7) vs 1.1 (1.2) cm, P=0.045, Mann–Whitney), they presented less frequently micro-MTCs (27.8 vs 46.1%, P=0.045), and underwent more multiple surgeries (63.3 vs 20.0%, P<0.001). Group 1 had more frequently progressive disease (35.8 vs 12.2%, P=0.003) and distant metastasis at follow-up (39.7 vs 17.4%, P=0.017). Chronological group (HR 0.15, 95% CI 0.03–0.68, P=0.015) and distant metastases at follow-up (HR 0.07, 95% CI 0.015–0.30, P=0.001) were independently associated with 10-year disease progression (P<0.001). In sporadic cases, cervical lymph node invasion and distant metastases at diagnosis were more frequent in group 1 (72.7 vs 45.5%, P=0.032 and 27.3 vs 5%, P=0.019 respectively); disease stage at diagnosis was more advanced (P=0.004). They underwent more multiple surgeries (P<0.001), presented more frequently distant metastasis at follow-up (67.7 vs 20.0%, P=0.002), had less frequently remission, and more frequently progressive disease (21.4 vs 58.0% and 64.3 vs 14.0% respectively, P<0.001). Postoperative calcitonin levels were higher (P=0.024).


Recently, an increase in micro-MTCs is observed, while indices of invasiveness and persistence of disease are better. Increased awareness in familial cases, routine calcitonin measurements, and improved surgical procedures could be responsible.