Turner syndrome (TS), affecting 1/2000 to 1/2500 live born girls, is a chromosomal aberration with a total or partial loss of one of the X chromosomes. The diagnosis can be established from the intra-uterine life to adulthood. TS is a chronic disease with particular morbidity and mortality. The loss to follow-up rate, during transition, between children and adult units, remains a crucial issue. This review focusses on the adolescent and young adult patients with TS. The different goals of TS transition are presented as well as some of the tools available in order to improve this transition. The involvement of the patient’s family, advocacy groups and therapeutic educational programs are discussed. A specificity concerning TS transition, as compared to other chronic diseases, relies on the fact that patients with TS may present a peculiar neurocognitive profile. They are in general more anxious than the general population. Therefore, psychological support should be offered to optimize transition. Data illustrating the beneficial impact of an organised transition of TS, from paediatric units to multidisciplinary adult care systems, within the same reference centre are presented. Further studies are required to evaluate the mid-to-long-term transition of paediatric patients with TS referred to adult units.
Valérie Bernard, Bruno Donadille, Tiphaine Le Poulennec, Mariana Nedelcu, Laetitia Martinerie and Sophie Christin-Maitre
Cécile Nozières, Laurence Chardon, Bernard Goichot, Françoise Borson-Chazot, Valérie Hervieu, Karim Chikh, Catherine Lombard-Bohas and Thomas Walter
Inappropriate calcitonin (CT) release, a major feature of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC), may occur in neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). The aims of this retrospective study were to assess i) the characteristics and prognosis of CT-producing NETs, and ii) the value of CT monitoring during follow-up.
All patients with NETs in whom serum CT was assayed between 2010 and 2012 were included. MTCs were excluded. Clinical, biological, and histological characteristics were studied.
Twenty-one (12%) of 176 patients in whom serum CT was systematically assayed had concentrations >100 ng/l, with tumours predominantly of bronchial or pancreatic origin (P<0.0001), and of high grade (P=0.0006). Poor prognosis was linked to high CT levels, poor differentiation, and grade 3. In a total group of 24 patients with serum CT >100 ng/l, symptoms potentially attributable to CT were recorded in eight, with occasional overlap with the carcinoid syndrome among other secretory syndromes. Immunohistochemistry could be performed in six tumor specimens, CT being detected in five. In 11 patients with five or more successive CT assays, hormone levels were fairly well correlated with clinical courses.
Serum CT levels may be raised in some patients with NETs, especially from foregut origin, and of high grade. The suggested value of CT monitoring during follow-up must be confirmed in further studies.
Valérie Bernard, Catherine Lombard-Bohas, Marie-Caroline Taquet, François-Xavier Caroli-Bosc, Philippe Ruszniewski, Patricia Niccoli, Rosine Guimbaud, Cécile N Chougnet, Bernard Goichot, Vincent Rohmer, Françoise Borson-Chazot, Eric Baudin and for the French Group of Endocrine Tumors
Refractory hypoglycemia in patients with metastatic insulinoma is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Everolimus could be a new therapeutic option.
Within the French Group, we conducted a retrospective, multicentric study of endocrine tumors to evaluate the time to the first recurrence of symptomatic hypoglycemia, after everolimus initiation, in patients with metastatic insulinoma and refractory hypoglycemia. Ongoing hyperglycemic medical options, tumor response, and safety information were recorded.
Twelve patients with metastatic insulinoma and refractory hypoglycemia who were treated with everolimus between May 2007 and June 2011 were reviewed. Everolimus (starting dose, 10 mg/day, except in one patient, 5 mg/day) was given after a median of four previous therapeutic lines. Medication aimed at normalizing blood glucose levels in 11 patients. After a median duration of 6.5 months (range 1–35+ months), median time to the first recurrence of symptomatic hypoglycemia was 6.5 months (range 0 to 35+ months). Three patients discontinued everolimus because of cardiac and/or pulmonary adverse events at 1, 1.5, and 7 months after initiation, which led to two deaths. Three patients discontinued everolimus because of tumor progression at 2, 3, and 10 months after initiation, without recurrence of hypoglycemia.
Everolimus appears to be a new effective treatment for patients with metastatic insulinoma and refractory hypoglycemia. Tolerance should be carefully monitored.
Sylvie Salenave, Valérie Bernard, Christine Do Cao, Laurence Guignat, Anne Bachelot, Sophie Leboulleux, Céline Droumaguet, Hélène Bry-Gauillard, Peggy Pierre, Lise Crinière, Pietro Santulli, Philippe Touraine, Philippe Chanson, Martin Schlumberger, Dominique Maiter, Eric Baudin and Jacques Young
Mitotane is an adrenolytic and anticortisolic drug used in adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC), Cushing's disease (CD), and ectopic ACTH syndrome. Its effects on the ovaries are unknown.
To evaluate the ovarian and gonadotrope effects of mitotane therapy in premenopausal women.
We studied 21 premenopausal women (ACC: n=13; CD: n=8; median age 33 years, range 18–45 years) receiving mitotane at a median initial dose of 3 g/day (range 1.5–6 g/day).
Gynecological history was collected and ovarian ultrasound was performed. Four women also underwent ovarian CT or magnetic resonance imaging. Serum gonadotropin, estradiol (E2), androgens, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and circulating mitotane levels were determined at diagnosis and during mitotane therapy.
In the women included, ovarian macrocysts (bilateral in 51%) were detected after a median 11 months (range: 3–36) of mitotane exposure. The median number of macrocysts per woman was two (range: 1–4) and the median diameter of the largest cysts was 50 mm (range: 26–90). Menstrual irregularities and/or pelvic pain were present in 15 out of 21 women at macrocyst diagnosis. In two women, the macrocysts were revealed by complications (ovarian torsion and hemorrhagic macrocyst rupture) that required surgery. Mitotane therapy was associated with a significant decrease in androstenedione and testosterone levels and a significant increase in LH levels. Serum FSH and E2 levels were also increased, and SHBG levels rose markedly.
Mitotane therapy causes significant morphological and ovarian/gonadotrope hormonal abnormalities in premenopausal women. Follicular thecal steroid synthesis appears to be specifically altered and the subsequent increase in gonadotropins might explain the development of macrocysts. The mechanisms underlying these adverse effects, whose exact prevalence in this population still needs to be determined, are discussed.