The neurotransmitter histamine participates in the neuroendocrine regulation of pituitary hormone secretion by an indirect action at a hypothalamic level where histaminergic neurons are abundant. The effect of histamine is caused by activation of postsynaptic H1- or H2-receptors. Histamine stimulates the secretion of ACTH, β-endorphin (mediated by CRH and AVP), α-MSH (mediated by dopamine and peripheral catecholamines), and PRL (mediated by dopamine, serotonin and AVP), and participates in the stress-induced release of these hormones and possibly in the suckling- and estrogen-induced PRL release. The release of GH and TSH is predominantly inhibited by histamine; however, uncertainty exists regarding its role and the hypothalamic factors involved. Histamine increases the secretion of LH in females (mediated by GnRH), and may be involved in the mediation of the estrogen-induced LH surge. AVP and oxytocin are stimulated by histamine, probably by an effect in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus.