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P. Luppa, K. Oettrich, I. Schwab, U. Langmandel and D. Neumeier


The human hepatoma cell line HEP G2 was investigated in an indirect immunofluorescence study for localization of the sex hormone-binding globulin. Cells were grown directly to confluency on the slides used for the immunocytochemical staining. A fine granular cytoplasmatic fluorescence pattern revealed the presence of sex hormone-binding globulin. Chang-liver cells used as controls, incubated under the same conditions, did not fluoresce. The synthesis of the hormone-binding protein in HEP G2 cells, which could be stimulated by L-thyroxine in the culture medium, was monitored by either indirect immunofluorescence or by immunoradiometric determination of sex hormone-binding globulin in the supernatant. These studies demonstrate that immunofluorescence techniques are able to detect sex hormone-binding globulin in human hepatoma cells.

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T Lappalainen, M Kolehmainen, U Schwab, L Pulkkinen, D E Laaksonen, R Rauramaa, M Uusitupa and H Gylling


Serum amyloid A (SAA) is a novel link between increased adipose tissue mass and low-grade inflammation in obesity. Little is known about the factors regulating its serum concentration and mRNA levels. We investigated the association between SAA and leptin in obese and normal weight subjects and analyzed the effect of weight reduction on serum SAA concentration and gene expression in adipose tissue of the obese subjects.


Seventy-five obese subjects (60±7 years, body mass index (BMI) 32.9±2.8 kg/m2, mean±s.d.) with impaired fasting plasma glucose or impaired glucose tolerance and other features of metabolic syndrome, and 11 normal weight control subjects (48±9 years, BMI 23.7±1.9 kg/m2) were studied at the baseline. Twenty-eight obese subjects underwent a 12-week intensive weight reduction program followed by 5 months of weight maintenance. Blood samples and abdominal s.c. adipose tissue biopsies were taken at the baseline and after the follow-up. Gene expression was studied using real-time quantitative PCR.


The gene expressions in women and serum concentrations of leptin and SAA were interrelated independently of body fat mass in the obese subjects (r=0.54, P=0.001; r=0.24, P=0.039 respectively). In multiple linear regression analyses, leptin mRNA explained 38% of the variance in SAA mRNA (P=0.002) in the obese women. Weight loss of at least 5% increased SAA mRNA expression by 48 and 36% in men and women, but serum SAA concentrations did not change.


The association between SAA and leptin suggests an interaction between these two adipokines, which may have implications in inflammatory processes related to obesity and the metabolic syndrome.