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Serap Turan, Abdullah Bereket, Tulay Guran, Teoman Akcay, Mahboubeh Papari-Zareei, and Richard J Auchus


17-Hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency (17OHD) results from mutations in the CYP17A1 gene, leading to failure to synthesize cortisol, adrenal androgens, and gonadal steroids. Adrenarche is a consequence of the increased production of adrenal androgens. Here, we report a case carrying novel R239Q mutation causing complete functional loss of CYP17A1, and thus absence of adrenal and gonadal sex hormone production. The patient has had unexpected pubic hair development and insufficient breast development with estrogen replacement therapy. Possible mechanisms leading to pubic hair development and breast underdevelopment are discussed.

Patient and methods

A 15-year-old female born to consanguineous parents presented with the lack of full breast development and irregular menses after the age of 14 years. She had Tanner III breast development on one side, Tanner I on the other side and Tanner I pubic hair and, no axillary hair development. The serum levels of FSH, LH, and progesterone were high and, estradiol was low. The measurement of basal and ACTH-stimulated steroids was consistent with the diagnosis of 17OHD. Genetic analysis revealed novel homozygous mutation R239Q in CYP17A1 gene. Therapy with hydrocortisone was initiated and followed by the addition of conjugated estrogen. Her breast development did not improve considerably, however, pubic hair development started after estrogen treatment in spite of undetectable serum levels of androgens.


This case study suggests that estrogen exerts a permissive effect on pubic hair development in girls, even in the presence of very low-circulating androgens, and impaired breast development might be due to estrogen/progesterone imbalance in breast tissue.

Free access

Elif Karakoc-Aydiner, Serap Turan, Ihsan Akpinar, Fuat Dede, Pinar Isguven, Erdal Adal, Tulay Guran, Teoman Akcay, and Abdullah Bereket


We aimed to investigate the reliability of thyroid ultrasonography (US) and scintigraphy in determining the type of thyroid dysgenesis (TD).


The study included 82 children (8.0±5.6 years) with a diagnosis of TD by thyroid scintigraphy with 99mTc and/or US. The patients were re-evaluated 6.0±5.1 years after the diagnosis. Thyroid US was performed in all cases, regardless of the previous US imaging. Scintigraphy images performed at the time of diagnoses (n=60) were re-evaluated during the study. Those who had no scintigraphy at the time of diagnosis (n=22) or had discordant findings with US (n=6) underwent a new scintigraphy.


Scintigraphies revealed no uptake in 37, ectopia in 35, and hypoplasia in 10 cases. The sensitivity vs specificity for US to detect athyreosis, ectopia, and hypoplasia at the time of initial diagnoses was 90.5 vs 47.8, 10 vs 100, and 100 vs 80.4% respectively. The sensitivity vs specificity for scintigraphy at the time of initial diagnoses was 96.2 vs 100, 92 vs 97.1, and 100 vs 96%, respectively, for each diagnosis. Re-scintigraphy at the time of the study led to a change in the initial diagnosis of 3/6 cases. Repeated US showed disappearance of previously reported hypoplastic thyroid tissues in eight patients.


US alone could not differentiate ectopia and athyreosis, whereas scintigraphy alone is also prone to mistakes in newborns and young ages. Dual thyroid imaging is important for precise structural definition of TD.

Free access

Maik Welzel, Leyla Akin, Anja Büscher, Tülay Güran, Berthold P Hauffa, Wolfgang Högler, Julia Leonards, Beate Karges, Heiner Kentrup, Birgul Kirel, Emine Esin Yalinbas Senses, Neslihan Tekin, Paul-Martin Holterhus, and Felix G Riepe


Pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1 (PHA1) is a monogenic disease caused by mutations in the genes encoding the human mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) or the α (SCNN1A), β (SCNN1B) or γ (SCNN1G) subunit of the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC). While autosomal dominant mutation of the MR cause renal PHA1, autosomal recessive mutations of the ENaC lead to systemic PHA1. In the latter, affected children suffer from neonatal onset of multi-organ salt loss and often exhibit cystic fibrosis-like pulmonary symptoms.


We searched for underlying mutations in seven unrelated children with systemic PHA1, all offsprings of healthy consanguineous parents.

Methods and results

Amplification of the SCNN1A gene and sequencing of all 13 coding exons unraveled mutations in all of our patients. We found five novel homozygous mutations (c.587_588insC in two patients, c.1342_1343insTACA, c.742delG, c.189C>A, c.1361-2A>G) and one known mutation (c.1474C>T) leading to truncation of the αENaC protein. All parents were asymptomatic heterozygous carriers of the respective mutations, confirming the autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. Five out of seven patients exhibited pulmonary symptoms in the neonatal period.


The α subunit is essential for ENaC function and mutations truncating the pore-forming part of the protein leading to systemic PHA1. Based on current knowledge, the pulmonary phenotype cannot be satisfactorily predicted.

Free access

Tulay Guran, Gozde Yesil, Serap Turan, Zeynep Atay, Emine Bozkurtlar, AghaRza Aghayev, Sinem Gul, Ilker Tinay, Basak Aru, Sema Arslan, M Kutay Koroglu, Feriha Ercan, Gulderen Y Demirel, Funda S Eren, Betul Karademir, and Abdullah Bereket


Most of the knowledge on the factors involved in human sexual development stems from studies of rare cases with disorders of sex development. Here, we have described a novel 46, XY complete gonadal dysgenesis syndrome caused by homozygous variants in PPP2R3C gene. This gene encodes B″gamma regulatory subunit of the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), which is a serine/threonine phosphatase involved in the phospho-regulation processes of most mammalian cell types. PPP2R3C gene is most abundantly expressed in testis in humans, while its function was hitherto unknown.

Patients and methods

Four girls from four unrelated families with 46, XY complete gonadal dysgenesis were studied using exome or Sanger sequencing of PPP2R3C gene. In total, four patients and their heterozygous parents were investigated for clinical, laboratory, immunohistochemical and molecular characteristics.


We have identified three different homozygous PPP2R3C variants, c.308T>C (p.L103P), c.578T>C (p.L193S) and c.1049T>C (p.F350S), in four girls with 46, XY complete gonadal dysgenesis. Patients also manifested a unique syndrome of extragonadal anomalies, including typical facial gestalt, low birth weight, myopathy, rod and cone dystrophy, anal atresia, omphalocele, sensorineural hearing loss, dry and scaly skin, skeletal abnormalities, renal agenesis and neuromotor delay. We have shown a decreased SOX9-Phospho protein expression in the dysgenetic gonads of the patients with homozygous PPP2R3C variants suggesting impaired SOX9 signaling in the pathogenesis of gonadal dysgenesis. Heterozygous males presented with abnormal sperm morphology and impaired fertility.


Our findings suggest that PPP2R3C protein is involved in the ontogeny of multiple organs, especially critical for testis development and spermatogenesis. PPPR3C provides insight into pathophysiology, as well as emerging as a potential therapeutic target for male infertility.

Open access

Irina Bacila, Nicole Freeman, Eleni Daniel, Marija Sandrk, Jillian Bryce, Salma Rashid Ali, Zehra Yavas Abalı, Navoda Atapattu, Tania A Bachega, Antonio Balsamo, Niels Birkebæk, Oliver Blankenstein, Walter Bonfig, Martine Cools, Eduardo Correa Costa, Feyza Darendeliler, Silvia Einaudi, Heba Hassan Elsedfy, Martijn Finken, Evelien Gevers, Hedi L Claahsen-van der Grinten, Tulay Guran, Ayla Güven, Sabine E. Hannema, Claire E Higham, Violeta Iotova, Hetty J. van der Kamp, Marta Korbonits, Ruth E Krone, Corina Lichiardopol, Andrea Luczay, Berenice Bilharinho Mendonca, Tatjana Milenkovic, Mirela C Miranda, Klaus Mohnike, Uta Neumann, Rita Ortolano, Sukran Poyrazoglu, Ajay Thankamony, Jeremy W Tomlinson, Ana Vieites, Liat de Vries, S Faisal Ahmed, Richard J Ross, and Nils P Krone

Objective: Despite published guidelines no unified approach to hormone replacement in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) exists. We aimed to explore geographical and temporal variations in the treatment with glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids in CAH.

Design: This retrospective multi-center study, including 31 centers (16 countries), analyzed data from the International-CAH Registry.

Methods: Data was collected from 461 patients aged 0-18 years with classic 21-hydroxylase deficiency (54.9% females) under follow-up between 1982 – 2018. Type, dose and timing of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid replacement was analyzed from 4174 patient visits.

Results: The most frequently used glucocorticoid was hydrocortisone (87.6%). Overall, there were significant differences between age groups with regards to daily hydrocortisone-equivalent dose for body surface, with the lowest dose (median with interquartile range) of 12.0 (10.0 – 14.5) mg/ m2/ day at age 1 - 8 years and the highest dose of 14.0 (11.6 - 17.4) mg/ m2/ day at age 12-18 years. Glucocorticoid doses decreased after 2010 in patients 0-8 years (p<0.001) and remained unchanged in patients aged 8-18 years. Fludrocortisone was used in 92% of patients, with relative doses decreasing with age. A wide variation was observed among countries with regards to all aspects of steroid hormone replacement.

Conclusions: Data from the I-CAH Registry suggests international variations in hormone replacement therapy, with a tendency to treatment with high doses in children.