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  • Author: Troels Krarup Hansen x
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Free access

Lars Melholt Rasmussen, Lise Tarnow, Troels Krarup Hansen, Hans-Henrik Parving and Allan Flyvbjerg

Objective: The bone-related peptide osteoprotegerin (OPG) has recently been found in increased amounts in the vasculature in diabetes. It is produced by vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells, and may be implicated in the development of vascular calcifications. OPG is present in the circulation, where increased amounts have been observed in patients with diabetes. In this study, we examined whether plasma OPG is associated with the glycaemic and vascular status of patients with type 1 diabetes.

Methods: Two gender-, age- and duration-comparable groups of type 1 diabetic patients either with (n = 199) or without (n = 192) signs of diabetic nephropathy were studied. Plasma OPG was determined by an ELISA.

Results: The plasma OPG concentration was significantly higher in patients with nephropathy than those without (3.11 (2.49–3.99) vs 2.57 (2.19–3.21) (median (interquartiles), ng/ml), P < 0.001). Plasma OPG correlated with haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), systolic blood pressure and age in both groups and, in addition, with kidney function in the nephropathic group. These correlations remained significant in multivariate models. In addition, we found that plasma OPG concentrations were increased among patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVD), both in the normoalbuminuric and the nephropathic groups. The differences between nephropathic and normoalbuminuric, as well as subgroups with and without CVD, could largely be ascribed to changes in HbA1c, age, systolic blood pressure and creatinine.

Conclusion: OPG is associated with glycaemic control and CVD in patients with type 1 diabetes, compatible with the hypothesis that OPG is associated with the development of diabetic vascular complications.

Free access

Claus Højbjerg Gravholt, Britta Eilersen Hjerrild, Leif Mosekilde, Troels Krarup Hansen, Lars Melholt Rasmussen, Jan Frystyk, Allan Flyvbjerg and Jens Sandahl Christiansen

Background: Body composition in Turner syndrome (TS) is altered with final height of TS decreased; anthropometry and bone mass distinctly changed.

Aim: To describe total and regional distribution of fat and muscle mass in TS and the relation to measures of glucose metabolism, sex hormones, IGFs, and markers of inflammation and vascular function.

Material and methods: Fifty-four women with TS (mean age, 42.5 ± 9.7 years) and an age-matched group of controls (n = 55) were examined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans with determination of regional body composition and estimation of visceral fat and skeletal muscle mass. We determined maximal oxygen uptake and assessed physical activity using a questionnaire. We measured serum adiponectin, ghrelin, IGF-I, IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), estradiol, testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), insulin, glucose, cytokines, vascular cell adhesion molecule-I, and intercellular cell adhesion molecule-I. Insulin sensitivity was estimated. Multiple linear regression models were used to examine the relationships between variables.

Results: TS had lower total lean body mass (LBM), while body mass index (BMI) and total fat mass (FM) were increased. We found increased visceral FM, and decreased trunk LBM, appendicular LBM, and skeletal muscle mass. VO2max and physical activity were significantly lower in TS, as were most hormone levels, except increased leptin. In multiple linear regression models, status (i.e. TS or control) was a consistent contributing variable.

Conclusion: Profound changes are present in body composition in TS, with increased FM, and decreased skeletal muscle mass. Circulating hormones, VO2max, and insulin sensitivity influence body composition. The accumulation of visceral fat would predict a higher risk of development of the insulin resistance syndrome.

Free access

Anne Lene Dalkjær Riis, Troels Krarup Hansen, Steffen Thiel, Claus Højbjerg Gravholt, Signe Gjedde, Lars Christian Gormsen, Jens Otto Lunde Jørgensen, Jørgen Weeke and Niels Møller

Background: Recent studies have indicated the existence of causal links between the endocrine and immune systems and cardiovascular disease. Mannan-binding lectin (MBL), a protein of the innate immune system, may constitute a connection between these fields.

Methods: To test whether thyroid hormone regulates MBL levels, we studied eight patients with Graves’ hyperthyroidism before and after methimazole therapy, eight healthy subjects before and after short-term experimental hyperthyroidism, and eight hypothyroid patients with chronic auto-immune thyroiditis before and after L-thyroxine substitution.

Results: In all hyperthyroid patients, MBL levels were increased – median (range), 1886 ng/ml (1478–7344) – before treatment and decreased to 954 ng/ml (312–3222) after treatment (P = 0.01, paired comparison: Wilcoxon’s signed ranks test). The healthy subjects had MBL levels of 1081 ng/ml (312–1578). Administration of thyroid hormones to these persons induced mild hyperthyroidism and increased MBL levels significantly to 1714 ng/ml (356–2488) (P = 0.01). Two of the eight hypothyroid patients had undetectably low levels of MBL both before and after L-thyroxine substitution. The other six hypothyroid patients had decreased levels of MBL of 145 ng/ml (20–457) compared with 979 ng/ml (214–1533) after L-thyroxine substitution (P = 0.03, paired comparison: Wilcoxon’s signed ranks test).

Conclusion: Our data show that thyroid hormone increases levels of MBL. MBL is part of the inflammatory complement system, and this modulation of complement activation may play a role in the pathogenesis of a number of key components of thyroid diseases.

Open access

Gudmundur Johannsson, Ulla Feldt-Rasmussen, Ida Holme Håkonsson, Henrik Biering, Patrice Rodien, Shigeyuki Tahara, Andrew Toogood, Michael Højby Rasmussen and the REAL 2 Study Group


Somapacitan is a reversible albumin-binding growth hormone (GH) derivative, developed for once-weekly administration. This study aimed to evaluate the safety of once-weekly somapacitan vs once-daily Norditropin®. Local tolerability and treatment satisfaction were also assessed.


26-week randomized, controlled phase 3 safety and tolerability trial in six countries (Nbib2382939).


Male or female patients aged 18–79 years with adult GH deficiency (AGHD), treated with once-daily GH for ≥6 months, were randomized to once-weekly somapacitan (n = 61) or once-daily Norditropin (n = 31) administered subcutaneously by pen. Both treatments were dose titrated for 8 weeks to achieve insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) standard deviation score (SDS) levels within the normal range, and then administered at a fixed dose. Outcome measures were adverse events (AEs), including injection site reactions; occurrence of anti-somapacitan/anti-GH antibodies and change in treatment satisfaction, assessed using the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication-9 (TSQM-9).


Mean IGF-I SDS remained between 0 and 2 SDS throughout the trial in both groups. AEs were mostly mild or moderate and transient in nature. The most common AEs were nasopharyngitis, headache and fatigue in both groups. More than 1500 somapacitan injections were administered and no clinically significant injection site reactions were reported. No anti-somapacitan or anti-GH antibodies were detected. The TSQM-9 score for convenience increased significantly more with somapacitan vs Norditropin (P = 0.0171).


In this 26-week trial in patients with AGHD, somapacitan was well tolerated and no safety issues were identified. Once-weekly somapacitan was reported to be more convenient than once-daily Norditropin.