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Per Olav Dale, Tom Tanbo, Tore Henriksen, Øystein Magnus and Thomas Åbyholm

Abstract. Anovulatory infertility in 134 women was treated with gonadotropins for a total of 318 cycles. The patients were classified into WHO group I, hypothalamic-pituitary failure (72 patients), and WHO group II, hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction (62 patients). All patients in this group had failed to achieve pregnancy with clomiphene citrate therapy in repeated cycles. The pregnancy rate in group I was 72.2% vs 17.7% in group II. The 'take home' baby rate was 57.1% in group I vs 13.1% in group II. The rate of miscarriages was 14.3% without any significant difference between the groups. Multiple pregnancies occurred only in group I patients (19.2%). The conception rate was highest in the first four cycles, whereas no patient became pregnant after the sixth treatment cycle. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome occurred most frequently in group II patients, however, overall only 2.2% of the patients needed hospitalization because of hyperstimulation. Gonadotropin therapy must be considered an efficient and successful treatment of infertility in patients with hypothalamic-pituitary failure, whereas the success rate is rather poor in patients with hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction.

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Per Olav Dale, Tom Tanbo, Ole Djøseland, Jak Jervell and Thomas Åbyholm

To investigate the effect of long-term androgen suppression on insulin sensitivity, obese and non-obese women with the polycystic ovary syndrome and obese and non-obese ovulatory women were given an oral glucose tolerance test before and after treatment with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist. The women with polycystic ovary syndrome showed higher basal luteinizing hormone and androgen levels than the ovulatory women. All women with the polycystic ovary syndrome responded non-diabetically to the glucose tolerance test. However, compared with controls, the obese women with the polycystic ovary syndrome showed a hyperinsulinemic response to the glucose tolerance test, indicating insulin resistance. During the 3-h glucose tolerance test there was no concomitant change in androgen levels in the hyperinsulinemic women with the polycystic ovary syndrome. The insulin response to an oral glucose tolerance test remained unchanged in all women, although a hypogonadotropic hypogonadal state was maintained for several weeks. This study therefore suggests that endogenous androgens do not play a role in sustaining insulin resistance in women with the polycystic ovary syndrome.