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Axel Tjörnstrand, Kerstin Gunnarsson, Max Evert, Erik Holmberg, Oskar Ragnarsson, Thord Rosén and Helena Filipsson Nyström


The number of studies on the incidence of pituitary adenomas (PAs) is limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the standardised incidence rate (SIR) of PAs in western Sweden.

Design, subjects and methods

Data from adult patients diagnosed with PAs in 2001–2011, living in the Västra Götaland County, were collected from the Swedish Pituitary Registry (SPR). In addition, medical records on all patients diagnosed with PAs at the six hospitals in the region were reviewed. In total, 592 patients were included in the study.

Age-SIR, given as rate/100 000 inhabitants (95% CI), was calculated using the WHO 2000 standard population as a reference.


The total SIR for PAs was 3.9/100 000 (3.6–4.3); 3.3/100 000 (2.9–3.7) for men and 4.7/100 000 (4.1–5.3) for women. In men, SIR increased with age, while in women SIR peaked at 25–34 years, mainly due to prolactinomas. Non-functioning PA (NFPA) was the most common PA (54%, 1.8/100 000 (1.6–2.0)) followed by prolactinomas (32%, 1.6/100 000 (1.3–1.9)), acromegaly (9%, 0.35/100 000 (0.25–0.45)), Cushing's disease (4%, 0.18/100 000 (0.11–0.25)) and TSH-producing PA (0.7%, 0.03/100 000 (0.00–0.05)). The proportion of macroadenomas for NFPA was 82%, prolactinomas 37%, GH-producing PA 77%, ACTH-producing PA 28% and TSH-producing PA 100%. The lifetime risk for PAs was 0.27% (0.24–0.31) in men and 0.29% (0.26–0.33) in women.


This study provides a reliable estimate on the overall incidence of PAs and confirms an increased incidence of PAs compared with studies conducted in the pre-magnetic resonance imaging era. The lower proportion of prolactinomas compared with previous studies is probably explained by the different criteria used.

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Marie Degerblad, Bengt-Åke Bengtsson, Margareta Bramnert, Olof Johnell, Per Manhem, Thord Rosén and Marja Thorén

Degerblad M, Bengtsson B-Å, Bramnert M, Johnell O, Manhem P, Rosén T, Thorén M. Reduced bone mineral density in adults with growth hormone (GH) deficiency: increased bone turnover during 12 months of GH substitution therapy. Eur J Endocrinol 1995;133:180–8. ISSN 0804–4643

To evaluate the consequences of growth hormone (GH) deficiency on bone mineral density and to evaluate the effects of GH substitution therapy, 68 adults (25 females and 43 males) aged 22–61 (mean 44.2 ± 1.2) years with GH deficiency (GHD) were studied. Fifty-eight patients had panhypopituitarism, three had isolated GHD and in seven patients at least one additional pituitary function was affected. Twenty-one patients had childhood onset GHD. The patients were randomized to receive either GH in daily injections (0.125 IU · kg−1 · week−1 for the first 4 weeks and subsequently 0.25 IU · kg−1 · week−1) or placebo for 6 months. The trial continued as an open study with GH treatment for 6 or 12 months, with data presented as compiled data of 12 months of GH treatment in 64 patients. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and bone turnover was assessed by serum markers of bone metabolism (osteocalcin, procollagen I peptide, crosslinked telopeptide of type I collagen and alkaline phosphatase activity). In women with adult onset GHD (N = 19) and in men with childhood onset GHD (N = 15), total body, spine and hip BMD was significantly reduced at baseline compared to Swedish age- and sex-matched control material. In men with adult onset of GHD (N = 28), BMD did not differ from male controls. During the placebocontrolled period, GH induced decreased total body and spine BMD, probably due to an expansion of the remodelling space, whereas all serum markers of bone turnover increased. Compiled GH data showed similar results after 6 months of treatment. After 12 months of GH treatment, BMD did not differ from basal values except for total body BMD, which was lower, whereas the serum markers of bone metabolism were still increased as compared to basal values. Two-thirds of the patients experienced fluid retention with peripheral oedema and arthralgias on the higher GH dosage. One obese patient developed non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and was withdrawn from the study. These results demonstrate that GHD has negative effects on BMD and that GH substitution induces increased bone turnover. Continued long-term observations will reveal if there is a positive effect of GH substitution on bone mass in the adult GHD patient.

Marie Degerblad, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Karolinska Hospital, S-17176 Stockholm, Sweden