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Casper Hammarstrand, Oskar Ragnarsson, Tobias Hallén, Eva Andersson, Thomas Skoglund, Anna G Nilsson, Gudmundur Johannsson, and Daniel S Olsson


Patients with secondary adrenal insufficiency (AI) have an excess mortality. The objective was to investigate the impact of the daily glucocorticoid replacement dose on mortality in patients with hypopituitarism due to non-functioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA).


Patients with NFPA were followed between years 1997 and 2014 and cross-referenced with the National Swedish Death Register. Standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was calculated with the general population as reference and Cox-regression was used to analyse the mortality.


The analysis included 392 patients (140 women) with NFPA. Mean ± s.d. age at diagnosis was 58.7 ± 14.6 years and mean follow-up was 12.7 ± 7.2 years. AI was present in 193 patients, receiving a mean daily hydrocortisone equivalent (HCeq) dose of 20 ± 6 mg. SMR (95% confidence interval (CI)) for patients with AI was similar to that for patients without, 0.88 (0.68–1.12) and 0.87 (0.63–1.18) respectively. SMR was higher for patients with a daily HCeq dose of >20 mg (1.42 (0.88–2.17)) than that in patients with a daily HCeq dose of 20 mg (0.71 (0.49–0.99)), P = 0.017. In a Cox-regression analysis, a daily HCeq dose of >20 mg was independently associated with a higher mortality (HR: 1.88 (1.06–3.33)). Patients with daily HCeq doses of ≤20 mg had a mortality risk comparable to patients without glucocorticoid replacement and to the general population.


Patients with NFPA and AI receiving more than 20 mg HCeq per day have an increased mortality. Our data also show that mortality in patients substituted with 20 mg HCeq per day or less is not increased.

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Tobias Hallén, Daniel S Olsson, Casper Hammarstrand, Charlotte Örndal, Angelica Engvall, Oskar Ragnarsson, Thomas Skoglund, and Gudmundur Johannsson

Objective: Current markers predicting tumour progression of pituitary adenomas after surgery are insufficient. Our objective was to investigate if minichromosome maintenance protein 7 (MCM7) expression predicts tumour progression in non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs).

Methods: In a cohort study of surgically treated NFPAs, two groups with distinctly different behaviour of a residual tumour were selected: one group requiring reintervention due to tumour progression (reintervention group, n=57) and one with residual tumours without progression (radiologically stable group, n=40). MCM7, Ki-67, estrogen receptor-⍺ expression, mitotic index and tumour subtype was assessed by immunohistochemistry and their association with tumour progression requiring reintervention was analysed.

Results: Median (IQR) MCM7 expression was 7.4% (2.4–15.2) in the reintervention group compared with 2.0% (0.6–5.3) in the radiologically stable group (P<0.0001). Cox regression analysis showed an association between high (>13%) MCM7 expression and reintervention (HR 3.1; 95%CI:1.7-5.4; P=0.00012). The probability for reintervention within 6 years for patients with high MCM7 was 93%. Ki-67 expression >3% (P=0.00062), age ≤55 years (P=0.00034) and mitotic index ≥1 (P=0.024) were also associated with reintervention. Using a receiver operating characteristics curve, a predictive model for reintervention with all the above predictors yielded an area under the curve of 82%. All eight patients with both high MCM7 and high Ki-67 needed reintervention.

Conclusion: This cohort study shows that expression of MCM7 is a predictor for clinically significant postoperative tumour progression. Together with age, Ki-67 and mitotic index, MCM7 might be of added value as a predictive marker when managing patients with NFPA after surgery.

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Daniel S Olsson, Penelope Trimpou, Tobias Hallén, Ing-Liss Bryngelsson, Eva Andersson, Thomas Skoglund, Bengt-Åke Bengtsson, Gudmundur Johannsson, and Anna G Nilsson


Hypopituitarism has been associated with increased mortality. The excess mortality may be due to untreated growth hormone (GH) deficiency but also due to various underlying disorders. We therefore analysed mortality in patients with only one underlying disorder, non-functioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA), with and without GH replacement therapy (GHRT).

Design and method

Patients with NFPA in the western region of Sweden, 1997–2011, were identified through the National Patient Registry and cross-referenced with several National Health Registries. All patient records were reviewed. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the general population as reference. Cox-regression models were performed to identify predictors of mortality.


A total of 426 NFPA patients with 4599 patient-years were included, of whom 207 had used GHRT and 219 had not received GHRT. Median (range) follow-up in patients with and without GHRT was 12.2 (0–25) and 8.2 (0–27) years, respectively. Other pituitary hormone deficiencies were more frequent in the GHRT group than those in the non-GHRT group. SMR was 0.65 (95% CI, 0.44–0.94; P = 0.018) for the GHRT group and 1.16 (0.94–1.42; P = 0.17) for the non-GHRT group. Direct comparison between the groups showed reduced mortality among those who were GH replaced (P = 0.0063). The SMR for malignant tumours was reduced in the GHRT-group (0.29; 0.08–0.73; P = 0.004) but not in untreated patients.


Selection bias explaining some of the results cannot be excluded. However, NFPA patients with GHRT had reduced overall mortality compared with the general population, and death due to malignancy was not increased. This suggests that long-term GHRT is safe in adult patients selected for treatment.