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Rachel Fourneaux, Marie Vermalle, Frederique Albarel, Isabelle Morange, Thomas Graillon, Vincent Amodru, Thomas Cuny, Henry Dufour, Thierry Brue, and Frederic Castinetti


A relative can be an asset in dealing with chronic illnesses, such as acromegaly, where quality of life (QoL) is altered even after remission. However, it has been shown that quality of life of caregivers can also be impacted. Our main objective was to compare the perception of acromegaly in remission in the patient–relative dyad.


In this observational study, 27 patients in remission and relatives were first asked to complete QoL, anxiety/depression and coping strategy questionnaires. Then, the patient’s body image and self-esteem were evaluated from both the patient’s and the relative’s point of view using the same questionnaires with modified instructions.


Relatives had overall an accurate estimation of patient body image using the Figure Rating Scale by Stunkard. However, there were wide variations between the patient’s and the relative’s responses regarding self-esteem and body perception. The QoL of relatives was not altered and was significantly higher in the social domain than for the patient.


Our results show that relatives require education concerning all the steps involved in the management of acromegaly, as they likely do not fully understand the sequelae of acromegaly.

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Nicolas Sahakian, Romain Appay, Noémie Resseguier, Thomas Graillon, Cécilia Piazzola, Cécilia Laure, Dominique Figarella-Branger, Jean Régis, Frédéric Castinetti, Thierry Brue, Henry Dufour, and Thomas Cuny


Usually benign, pituitary tumors (PT) can be invasive and aggressive with a propensity to progress and/or recur. Trouillas’s clinicopathological classification attempts to predict the evolutionary risk of a PT. In this study, we assessed the prognostic value of this classification in an independent patient cohort and analyzed its impact on treatment strategies.

Patients and methods

In this study, 607 patients operated on between 2008 and 2018 for a PT were included. Grading was established based on invasion, proliferative activity (Ki-67, mitotic index) and p53 positivity. The therapeutic management following surgery was analyzed. Progression-free survival (PFS) of the graded tumors was estimated (Kaplan–Meier method and log-rank test) and a multivariate analysis was performed (Cox regression model).


Grading identified non-invasive PT without (grade 1a: 303 cases) or with proliferative activity (grade 1b: 53 cases) and invasive PT without (grade 2a: 202 cases) or with proliferative activity (grade 2b: 49 cases). The mean follow-up was 47 ± 30 months (median: 38 months). Progression/recurrence occurred in 127 cases. Grades were significant and independent predictors of PFS (P < 0.001) with a 4.8-fold higher risk of progression/recurrence in grade 2b as compared to grade 1a. As second-line therapy, gamma knife or conventional radiotherapy controlled tumor growth in 91.6 and 100% of cases, respectively, irrespective of the grade. Proliferative tumors exposed the patient to a 9.5-fold higher risk of having ≥3 adjuvant therapeutic lines as compared to non-proliferative tumors.


Grading of a PT according to Trouillas’s classification predicts its risk of progression and should advocate for a personalized therapeutic approach in invasive and proliferative tumors.

Significance statement

This is the first study to assess, on a cohort of 607 well-characterized patients, the real-life therapeutic impact of the five-tiered clinicopathological classification of pituitary tumors. First, we validate that pituitary tumor grades predict the evolutionary risk of the tumor, with a significant higher risk of progression/recurrence in invasive and/or proliferative tumors (mean follow-up: 47 ± 30 months, median: 38 months). Moreover, our study provides evidence that patients with proliferative tumors have a higher risk to be retreated after primary surgery and point toward the fact that radiotherapy can successfully control tumor growth in case of progression or recurrence. Our findings advocate for a personalized therapeutic approach in clinically aggressive pituitary tumors.

Free access

Frederic Castinetti, Philippe Caron, Isabelle Raingeard, Vincent Amodru, Frederique Albarel, Isabelle Morange, Philippe Chanson, Julie Calvo, Thomas Graillon, Karine Baumstarck, Henry Dufour, Jean Regis, and Thierry Brue


Persistent growth hormone hypersecretion can be observed in roughly 50% of patients operated for somatotroph adenomas, requiring additional treatments. Despite its proven antisecretory efficacy, the use of Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GK) is limited probably due to the lack of data on long-term side effects, including potential cognitive consequences.


The LATe Effects of Radiosurgery in Acromegaly study was a cross-sectional exposed/unexposed non-randomized study. The primary objective was to determine the long-term neurocognitive effects of GK focusing on memory, executive functions, and calculation ability. Exposed patients had been treated by GK for acromegaly at least 5 years before inclusion. Unexposed patients (paired for age) had to be cured or controlled at last follow-up without any radiation technique. Patients of both groups were cured or controlled at the last follow-up.


Sixty-four patients were evaluated (27 exposed and 37 unexposed). Mean follow-up after GK was 13 ± 6 years (including 24 patients followed for at least 10 years). While up to 23.8% of the patients of the whole cohort presented at least one abnormal cognitive test, we did not observe any significant difference in neurocognitive function between both groups. During the follow-up, 11 patients presented at least one new pituitary deficiency (P  = 0.009 for thyroid-stimulating hormone deficiency with a higher rate in exposed patients), two presented a stroke (1 in each group), and one presented a meningioma (12 years after GK).


While GK exposes patients to a well-known risk of pituitary deficiency, it does not seem to induce long-term cognitive consequences in patients treated for acromegaly.