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Katarina Trebušak Podkrajšek, Tatjana Milenković, Roelof J Odink, Hedi L Claasen-van der Grinten, Nina Bratanič, Tinka Hovnik, and Tadej Battelino


Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1 (APS-1) is characterised by multiple autoimmune diseases. Detection of autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene mutations facilitates timely and precise diagnosis.


AIRE mutation detection was performed in a cohort of 11 patients. Two did not meet clinical APS-1 criteria and several started with atypical presentation.


Sequencing and TaqMan genotyping were used to identify AIRE mutations. Complete AIRE deletion was confirmed and framed by real-time PCR, long-range amplification and analysis of the microsatellite markers.


Seven different mutations were detected, three were novel: c.892G>A in exon 8, silent mutation c.462A>T in exon 3 most likely affecting splicing, and a complete deletion of a single AIRE allele ((?_68)_(1567-14_?)del). Novel (chronic otitis) and rare (systemic juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, autoimmune bronchiolitis, epilepsy) clinical presentations were observed.


AIRE mutation detection was valuable in the diagnostics of APS-1 in patients with atypical presentation. Chronic otitis media possibly broadened the cluster of APS-1 manifestations.

Open access

Irina Bacila, Nicole Freeman, Eleni Daniel, Marija Sandrk, Jillian Bryce, Salma Rashid Ali, Zehra Yavas Abalı, Navoda Atapattu, Tania A Bachega, Antonio Balsamo, Niels Birkebæk, Oliver Blankenstein, Walter Bonfig, Martine Cools, Eduardo Correa Costa, Feyza Darendeliler, Silvia Einaudi, Heba Hassan Elsedfy, Martijn Finken, Evelien Gevers, Hedi L Claahsen-van der Grinten, Tulay Guran, Ayla Güven, Sabine E. Hannema, Claire E Higham, Violeta Iotova, Hetty J. van der Kamp, Marta Korbonits, Ruth E Krone, Corina Lichiardopol, Andrea Luczay, Berenice Bilharinho Mendonca, Tatjana Milenkovic, Mirela C Miranda, Klaus Mohnike, Uta Neumann, Rita Ortolano, Sukran Poyrazoglu, Ajay Thankamony, Jeremy W Tomlinson, Ana Vieites, Liat de Vries, S Faisal Ahmed, Richard J Ross, and Nils P Krone

Objective: Despite published guidelines no unified approach to hormone replacement in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) exists. We aimed to explore geographical and temporal variations in the treatment with glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids in CAH.

Design: This retrospective multi-center study, including 31 centers (16 countries), analyzed data from the International-CAH Registry.

Methods: Data was collected from 461 patients aged 0-18 years with classic 21-hydroxylase deficiency (54.9% females) under follow-up between 1982 – 2018. Type, dose and timing of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid replacement was analyzed from 4174 patient visits.

Results: The most frequently used glucocorticoid was hydrocortisone (87.6%). Overall, there were significant differences between age groups with regards to daily hydrocortisone-equivalent dose for body surface, with the lowest dose (median with interquartile range) of 12.0 (10.0 – 14.5) mg/ m2/ day at age 1 - 8 years and the highest dose of 14.0 (11.6 - 17.4) mg/ m2/ day at age 12-18 years. Glucocorticoid doses decreased after 2010 in patients 0-8 years (p<0.001) and remained unchanged in patients aged 8-18 years. Fludrocortisone was used in 92% of patients, with relative doses decreasing with age. A wide variation was observed among countries with regards to all aspects of steroid hormone replacement.

Conclusions: Data from the I-CAH Registry suggests international variations in hormone replacement therapy, with a tendency to treatment with high doses in children.