Most congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) patients carry CYP21A2 mutations derived from conversion events involving the pseudogene, and the remaining carry new mutations.
To review causal mutations and genotype–phenotype correlation in 480 Brazilian patients.
DNA was extracted from 158 salt-wasters (SWs), 116 simple virilizing (SV), and 206 nonclassical (NC) patients. Fourteen point mutations were screened by allele-specific PCR, large rearrangements by Southern blotting/MLPA, and sequencing was performed in those with incomplete genotype. The gene founder effect was analyzed by microsatellite studies. Patients were divided into six genotypes (Null; A: <2%; B: 3–7%; C: >20% of residual enzymatic activity (EA); D: unknown EA; E: incomplete genotype).
Targeted methodologies defined genotype in 87.6% of classical and in 80% of NC patients and the addition of sequencing in 100 and 83.5%, respectively. The most frequent mutations were p.V281L (26.6% of alleles), IVS2-13A/C>G (21.1%), and p.I172N (7.5%); seven rare mutations and one novel mutation (p.E351V) were identified. Gene founder effect was observed in all but one (p.W19X) mutation. Null, A, B, and C genotypes correlated with SW (88%), SW (70%), SV (98%), and NC forms (100%), respectively. In group D, the p.E351V mutation correlated with classical form and group E comprised exclusively NC-patients. ACTH-stimulated 17OHP level of 44.3ng/mL was the best cutoff to identify NC-patients carrying severe mutations.
We identified a good genotype–phenotype correlation in CAH, providing useful data regarding prediction of disease’s severity; moreover, we suggest that ACTH-stimulated 17OHP levels could predict carrier status for severe mutations. Sequencing is essential to optimize molecular diagnosis in Brazilian CAH patients.