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Sheng-Yin Chen, Jui-Yi Chen, Wei-Chieh Huang, Troy Hai Kiat Puar, Peng Chin Kek, Jeff S Chueh, Yen-Hung Lin, Vin-Cent Wu, and TAIPAI Study Group


In patients with primary aldosteronism (PA), long-term cardiovascular and mortality outcomes after adrenalectomy vs mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA) have not been compared yet. We aim to compare the clinical outcomes of these patients after treatment.

Design and Methods

A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted by searching PubMed, Cochrane library, and Embase from no start date restriction to 18 December 2021. Our composite primary outcomes were long-term all-cause mortality and/or major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), including coronary artery disease (CAD), stroke, arrhythmia, and congestive heart failure. We adopted the random-effects model and performed subgroup analyses, meta-regression, and trial sequential analysis (TSA).


A total of 9 studies with 8473 adult patients with PA (≥18 years) were enrolled. A lower incidence of composite primary outcomes was observed in the adrenalectomy group (odds ratio (OR): 0.46 (95% CI: 0.38–0.56), P < 0.001). We found a lower incidence of all-cause mortality (OR: 0.33 (95% CI: 0.15–0.73), P = 0.006) and MACE (OR: 0.55, (95% CI: 0.40–0.74), P = 0.0001) in the adrenalectomy group. The incidence of CAD (OR: 0.33 (95% CI: 0.15–0.75), P = 0.008), arrhythmias (OR: 0.46 (95% CI: 0.27–0.81), P = 0.007), and congestive heart failure (OR: 0.52 (95% CI: 0.33–0.81), P = 0.004) was also lower in adrenalectomy group. The metaregression showed patient’s age may attenuate the benefits of adrenalectomy on composite primary outcomes (coefficient: 1.084 (95% CI: 1.005–1.169), P = 0.036). TSA demonstrated that the accrued sample size and effect size were sufficiently large to draw a solid conclusion, and the advantage of adrenalectomy over MRA was constant with the chronological sequence.


In conclusion, adrenalectomy could be preferred over MRA for patients with PA in reducing the risk of all-cause mortality and/or MACE and should be considered as the treatment of choice. That patients with PA could get less benefit from adrenalectomy as they age warrants further investigation.

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Cheng-Hsuan Tsai, Che-Wei Liao, Xue-Ming Wu, Zheng-Wei Chen, Chien-Ting Pan, Yi-Yao Chang, Bo-Ching Lee, Chia-Tung Shun, Wen-Fen Wen, Chia-Hung Chou, Vin-Cent Wu, Chi-Sheng Hung, Yen-Hung Lin, and the TAIPAI Study Group


The presence of autonomous cortisol secretion (ACS) in patients with primary aldosteronism (PA) is common and potentially associated with poor outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between ACS and vascular remodeling in PA patients.

Design and methods

We prospectively enrolled 436 PA patients from October 2006 to November 2019. ACS (defined as a cortisol level >1.8 μg/dL after a 1 mg dexamethasone suppression test) was detected in 23% of the PA patients. Propensity score matching (PSM) with age, sex, systolic and diastolic blood pressure was performed. The brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) was examined at baseline and 1 year after targeted treatment. Small arteries of periadrenal fat in 46 patients were stained with Picro Sirus red to quantify the severity of vascular fibrosis.


After PSM, the PA patients with ACS had a significantly higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus, higher plasma aldosterone concentration and higher aldosterone-to-renin ratio. The baseline mean baPWV was also significantly higher in the PA patients with ACS. After multivariable regression analysis, the presence of ACS was a significant predictor of worse baseline mean baPWV (β: 235.745, 95% CI: 59.602–411.888, P = 0.010). In addition, the PA patients with ACS had worse vascular fibrosis (fibrosis area: 25.6 ± 8.4%) compared to those without ACS (fibrosis area: 19.8 ± 7.7%, P = 0.020). After 1 year of PA treatment, baPWV significantly improved in both groups.


The presence of ACS in PA patients is associated with worse arterial stiffness and vascular remodeling.