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Free access

Marie-Laure Raffin-Sanson, Bérénice Oudet, Sylvie Salenave, Sylvie Brailly-Tabard, Martine Pehuet, Sophie Christin-Maitre, Yves Morel, and Jacques Young

Objective

DAX1/NR0B1 mutations cause primary adrenal insufficiency in early childhood and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HHG), leading to absent or incomplete sexual maturation. The aim of the study was to prospectively investigate gonadotrope and testicular functions in a patient carrying a DAX1 mutation, who had spontaneous puberty and normal virilization but oligospermia.

Case report

The proband was referred for infertility at the age of 32 years. He reported adrenal insufficiency diagnosed at the age of 19 years. Puberty started at the age of 13 years, with spontaneous virilization, growth spurt, and testicular growth. He reported normal libido and sexual function. Physical examination showed normal virilization, penile length, and testicular volume. However, semen samples showed severe oligospermia. Hormonal measurements confirmed adrenal insufficiency but showed a preserved hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis with normal testosterone and inhibin B; basal and GNRH-stimulated gonadotropin levels and LH pulsatility were also normal. He fathered a first boy by in vitro fertilization and a second boy without medical assistance. As a nephew also had early adrenal insufficiency, the possibility of DAX1 mutation was raised. The same recurrent hemizygous nonsense mutation W39X was found in the proband, his nephew, and in an apparently asymptomatic brother who was found to have adrenal insufficiency, mild HHG, and azoospermia. Several evaluations of the proband over 20 years showed preserved testosterone levels and LH secretion but deteriorating oligospermia.

Conclusion

Long-term preservation of normal hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal function in this patient, contrasting with his severe oligospermia, strongly suggests that DAX1 is required for human spermatogenesis, independently of its known role in gonadotropin secretion.

Free access

Mirella Hage, Clément Janot, Sylvie Salenave, Philippe Chanson, and Peter Kamenický

To gain more insight on the pathogenesis of somatotroph pituitary adenomas, recent studies have focused on a subgroup of patients with acromegaly displaying a paradoxical growth hormone (GH) response during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The paradoxical rise of GH after oral glucose intake occurs in about one-third of acromegaly patients and has been pathogenetically linked, by analogy to glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP)-dependent Cushing's syndrome, to the ectopic expression of GIP receptor (GIPR) in somatotroph adenoma cells. GIPR-expressing adenomas are negative for activating GNAS gene mutations and display distinct cytogenetic and DNA methylation profiles, highlighting their unique molecular pathogenesis. Acromegaly patients with a paradoxical GH response pattern seem to display higher insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentrations and harbour smaller adenomas that are more often of the densely granulated phenotype. They seem also to show a better response to somatostatin receptor ligands. In addition, persistent paradoxical GH response after surgery may be a biological marker of the residual disease postoperatively. Targeted therapy to antagonize GIP receptor on GIPR-expressing somatotroph adenomas could be a new treatment approach for acromegaly patients with a paradoxical pattern of GH response to OGTT.

Open access

Emmanuelle Kuhn, Luigi Maione, Amir Bouchachi, Myriam Rozière, Sylvie Salenave, Sylvie Brailly-Tabard, Jacques Young, Peter Kamenicky, Patrick Assayag, and Philippe Chanson

Context

The effect of pegvisomant on IGF1 levels in patients with acromegaly is well documented, but little is known of its long-term impact on comorbidity.

Aim

The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the effects of long-term pegvisomant therapy on cardiorespiratory and metabolic comorbidity in patients with acromegaly.

Patients and methods

We analyzed the long-term (up to 10 years) effect of pegvisomant therapy given alone (n=19, 45%) or in addition to somatostatin analogues and/or cabergoline (n=23, 55%) on echocardiographic, polysomnographic and metabolic parameters in respectively 42, 12 and 26 patients with acromegaly followed in Bicêtre hospital.

Results

At the first cardiac evaluation, 20±16 months after pegvisomant introduction, IGF1 levels normalized in 29 (69%) of the 42 patients. The left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) improved significantly in patients whose basal LVEF was ≤60% and decreased in those whose LVEF was >70%. The left ventricular mass index (LVMi) decreased from 123±25 to 101±21 g/m2 (P<0.05) in the 17 patients with a basal LVMi higher than the median (91 g/m2), while it remained stable in the other patients. Pegvisomant reduced the apnoea–hypopnea index and cured obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in four of the eight patients concerned. Long-term follow-up of 22 patients showed continuing improvements in cardiac parameters. The BMI and LDL cholesterol level increased minimally during pegvisomant therapy, and other lipid parameters were not modified.

Conclusions

Long-term pegvisomant therapy not only normalizes IGF1 in a large proportion of patients but also improves cardiac and respiratory comorbidity.

Free access

Frédéric Brioude, Jérôme Bouligand, Séverine Trabado, Bruno Francou, Sylvie Salenave, Peter Kamenicky, Sylvie Brailly-Tabard, Philippe Chanson, Anne Guiochon-Mantel, and Jacques Young

Congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH) results from abnormal gonadotropin secretion, and it is characterized by impaired pubertal development. CHH is caused by defective GNRH release, or by a gonadotrope cell dysfunction in the pituitary. Identification of genetic abnormalities related to CHH has provided major insights into the pathways critical for the development, maturation, and function of the reproductive axis. Mutations in five genes have been found specifically in Kallmann's syndrome, a disorder in which CHH is related to abnormal GNRH neuron ontogenesis and is associated with anosmia or hyposmia.

In combined pituitary hormone deficiency or in complex syndromic CHH in which gonadotropin deficiency is either incidental or only one aspect of a more complex endocrine disorder or a non-endocrine disorder, other mutations affecting GNRH and/or gonadotropin secretion have been reported.

Often, the CHH phenotype is tightly linked to an isolated deficiency of gonadotropin secretion. These patients, who have no associated signs or hormone deficiencies independent of the deficiency in gonadotropin and sex steroids, have isolated CHH. In some familial cases, they are due to genetic alterations affecting GNRH secretion (mutations in GNRH1, GPR54/KISS1R and TAC3 and TACR3) or the GNRH sensitivity of the gonadotropic cells (GNRHR). A minority of patients with Kallmann's syndrome or a syndromic form of CHH may also appear to have isolated CHH, but close clinical, familial, and genetic studies can reorient the diagnosis, which is important for genetic counseling in the context of assisted reproductive medicine.

This review focuses on published cases of isolated CHH, its clinical and endocrine features, genetic causes, and genotype–phenotype relationships.

Free access

Peter Kamenicky, Christine Dos Santos, Consuelo Espinosa, Sylvie Salenave, Françoise Galland, Yves Le Bouc, Patrick Maison, Pierre Bougnères, and Philippe Chanson

Context

A discrepancy between serum GH and IGF1 concentrations is frequent in patients with acromegaly. Here, we examined whether the exon 3-deleted (d3) GH receptor (GHR) variant, which has been linked to increased responsiveness to GH treatment in short children, influences the GH/IGF1 relationship in patients with acromegaly.

Objective

To study the possible influence of the GHR genotype on the GH/IGF1 relationship in untreated acromegalic patients.

Design

GHR genotype analysis with retrospective clinical and biochemical data collection performed in a single third-reference medical center.

Patients and methods

Clinical data were obtained from the medical records of 105 acromegalic patients who had GH and IGF1 assays in the same laboratory and who were genotyped for the full-length (fl) or d3-GHR alleles.

Results

The distribution of GHR genotypes was 51% fl/fl, 30% fl/d3, and 19% d3/d3. Patients with d3/d3 genotype were younger than the patients in the other two groups (P<0.05). Baseline GH and IGF1 concentrations did not differ among the three groups. The linear correlation between GH and IGF1 concentrations was similar in the three genotypic groups.

Conclusions

The exon 3 GHR genotype does not affect the GH/IGF1 relationship in untreated acromegalic patients with high circulating GH and IGF1 levels.

Restricted access

France Devuyst, Paraskevi Kazakou, Danielle Balériaux, Orsalia Alexopoulou, Agnès Burniat, Sylvie Salenave, Philippe Chanson, Bernard Corvilain, and Dominique Maiter

Context

Association of central diabetes insipidus (CDI) and pituitary stalk thickening (PST) may have several etiologies (including malignancies) and differential diagnosis remains often difficult.

Objective

The purpose of this study was to identify which clinical, biochemical or radiological features could help clinicians to make an etiological diagnosis, especially distinguishing neoplastic from non-neoplastic pituitary stalk lesions.

Design and methods

We retrospectively analyzed clinical, biochemical, radiological and histological data of 38 adult patients diagnosed with CDI and PST of proven etiology.

Results

Of the 38 pituitary stalk lesions included, 11 (29%) were neoplastic. A histopathological diagnosis was obtained in 22/38 (58%) patients. The three most frequently observed etiologies of PST were neuroinfundibulitis (34%), germinoma (21%) and histiocytosis (18%). Pituitary stalk thickness was larger for neoplastic lesions, particularly germinomas. Male gender and a very young age were statistically associated with a risk of germinoma. At least one anterior pituitary deficit was observed in nearly 60% of patients. Patients with neoplastic PST were more affected by multiple anterior pituitary dysfunction than patients with benign PST. A high serum prolactin level was individually the best predictor of a neoplastic origin (90% sensitivity and 60% specificity for a serum prolactin level 1.27-fold above the normal upper limit (ULN)).

Conclusion

We confirm a relatively high risk of malignancy in adult patients presenting with the association of CDI and PST. Young age, male gender, a very large thickening of the stalk, multiple anterior pituitary deficits and prolactin above 1.3× ULN increase the likelihood of a neoplastic origin.

Free access

France Devuyst, Paraskevi Kazakou, Danielle Balériaux, Orsalia Alexopoulou, Agnès Burniat, Sylvie Salenave, Philippe Chanson, Bernard Corvilain, and Dominique Maiter

Free access

Anne-Lise Lecoq, Jérôme Bouligand, Mirella Hage, Laure Cazabat, Sylvie Salenave, Agnès Linglart, Jacques Young, Anne Guiochon-Mantel, Philippe Chanson, and Peter Kamenický

Context

Recently, germline and somatic GPR101 p.(E308D) mutation was found in patients with isolated acromegaly. It is not known whether GPR101 point mutations are associated with other histological types of pituitary adenoma.

Objective

We sought germline GPR101 mutations in patients with sporadic pituitary adenomas, and compared the phenotypes of GPR101 mutation carriers and AIP mutation carriers.

Design

An observational cohort study performed between 2007 and 2014 in a single referral center.

Participants

This prospective study involved 766 unselected patients (413 women) with sporadic pituitary adenomas of all histotypes.

Methods

Entire GPR101 and AIP coding sequence were screened for germline mutations.

Results

Twelve patients (1.6%) were found to carry the GPR101 p.(E308D) mutation or rare GPR101 variants. The minor allele frequency of the GPR101 mutation and variants was higher in patients with pituitary adenomas than in unaffected individuals included in the Exome Aggregation Consortium database. Three of the six patients with the GPR101 p.(E308D) mutation had adult-onset acromegaly, two had adrenocorticotropin-secreting adenomas, and one had a nonfunctioning macroadenoma. Six patients carried rare GPR101 variants. Germline AIP mutations or rare AIP variants were identified in 32 patients (4.2%). AIP mutation carriers were younger at diagnosis than GPR101 mutation carriers and non carriers. None of the patients harbored mutations in both the GPR101 and AIP genes.

Conclusion

Germline GPR101 mutations are very rare in patients with sporadic pituitary adenomas of various histotypes. No digenism with AIP was identified. Further studies are required to establish whether and how genetic variation in GPR101 gene contributes to pituitary tumorigenesis.

Free access

Sylvie Salenave, Valérie Bernard, Christine Do Cao, Laurence Guignat, Anne Bachelot, Sophie Leboulleux, Céline Droumaguet, Hélène Bry-Gauillard, Peggy Pierre, Lise Crinière, Pietro Santulli, Philippe Touraine, Philippe Chanson, Martin Schlumberger, Dominique Maiter, Eric Baudin, and Jacques Young

Context

Mitotane is an adrenolytic and anticortisolic drug used in adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC), Cushing's disease (CD), and ectopic ACTH syndrome. Its effects on the ovaries are unknown.

Objective

To evaluate the ovarian and gonadotrope effects of mitotane therapy in premenopausal women.

Patients

We studied 21 premenopausal women (ACC: n=13; CD: n=8; median age 33 years, range 18–45 years) receiving mitotane at a median initial dose of 3 g/day (range 1.5–6 g/day).

Methods

Gynecological history was collected and ovarian ultrasound was performed. Four women also underwent ovarian CT or magnetic resonance imaging. Serum gonadotropin, estradiol (E2), androgens, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and circulating mitotane levels were determined at diagnosis and during mitotane therapy.

Results

In the women included, ovarian macrocysts (bilateral in 51%) were detected after a median 11 months (range: 3–36) of mitotane exposure. The median number of macrocysts per woman was two (range: 1–4) and the median diameter of the largest cysts was 50 mm (range: 26–90). Menstrual irregularities and/or pelvic pain were present in 15 out of 21 women at macrocyst diagnosis. In two women, the macrocysts were revealed by complications (ovarian torsion and hemorrhagic macrocyst rupture) that required surgery. Mitotane therapy was associated with a significant decrease in androstenedione and testosterone levels and a significant increase in LH levels. Serum FSH and E2 levels were also increased, and SHBG levels rose markedly.

Conclusions

Mitotane therapy causes significant morphological and ovarian/gonadotrope hormonal abnormalities in premenopausal women. Follicular thecal steroid synthesis appears to be specifically altered and the subsequent increase in gonadotropins might explain the development of macrocysts. The mechanisms underlying these adverse effects, whose exact prevalence in this population still needs to be determined, are discussed.

Free access

Bruno Donadille, Alexandra Rousseau, Delphine Zenaty, Sylvie Cabrol, Carine Courtillot, Dinane Samara-Boustani, Sylvie Salenave, Laurence Monnier-Cholley, Catherine Meuleman, Guillaume Jondeau, Laurence Iserin, Lise Duranteau, Laure Cabanes, Nathalie Bourcigaux, Damien Bonnet, Philippe Bouchard, Philippe Chanson, Michel Polak, Philippe Touraine, Yves Lebouc, Jean-Claude Carel, Juliane Léger, and Sophie Christin-Maitre

Objective

Congenital cardiovascular malformations and aortic dilatation are frequent in patients with Turner syndrome (TS). The objective of this study was to investigate the cardiovascular findings and management in a large cohort of patients, including children and adults.

Design/methods

We recruited 336 patients with TS from a network of tertiary centers. We reviewed their files, checking for cardiovascular events, cardiac valve abnormalities, and aortic diameters indexed to body surface area (BSA) from magnetic resonance imaging (n=110) or echocardiography (n=300).

Results

Informative cardiovascular data were available for only 233 patients. Vascular surgery was reported in 7.4% of the cohort. The first cause of surgery was aortic coarctation, detected in 6.9% at a median age of 9.5 (range: 0–60) years. Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) was detected in 21% at a median age of 20 years (25th–75th percentiles: 15–30). At least one aortic diameter exceeded 32 mm in 12% of the cohort. This was detected at a median age of 19 (7–30) years. When indexed to BSA, at least one aortic diameter exceeded 20 mm/m2 in 39% of the cohort.

Conclusion

Our study shows that cardiovascular monitoring for TS patients is currently insufficient in France. BAV is present at birth, but often remains undiagnosed until later in life. Therefore, improved management in cardiovascular monitoring is required and a more systematic approach should be taken.