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  • Author: Svetozar Damjanovic x
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Djuro Macut, Svetozar Damjanović, Dimitrios Panidis, Nikolaos Spanos, Biljana Glišić, Milan Petakov, David Rousso, Anargyros Kourtis, Jelica Bjekić and Nataša Milić

Objective: Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are assumed to be at increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. This study examined the variations in oxidised low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL) concentration in relation to insulin levels in young women with PCOS.

Design: Cross-sectional clinical study in tertiary cares research hospitals. A total of 179 women with PCOS (79 overweight) and 56 age- and body mass index-matched controls were examined.

Methods: Blood samples were collected in follicular phase of the cycle for the basal glucose, total-, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and LDL-cholesterol, OxLDL, triglycerides, apolipoprotein–A1 (Apo-A1) and B (Apo-B), lipoprotein (a), insulin, testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). Homeostatic model index (HOMA) and free androgen index (FAI) were determined.

Results: Overweight and normal weight women with PCOS had higher concentrations of OxLDL than their control counterparts (P=0.007 and 0.003 respectively). Both the basal insulin (P=0.003) and HOMA values (P<0.001) were significantly higher in overweight than normal weight patients. Testosterone and FAI were higher in patients than in the respective controls (P<0.001). The only independent predictor of increased OxLDL concentration in normal weight patients was Apo-B-to-Apo-A1 ratio (P<0.001, odds ratio (OR) 6.1; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.3–16.4), while in obese PCOS, it was total cholesterol-to-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (P<0.001, OR 2.8; 95% CI 1.6–4.9).

Conclusion: Young normal weight and overweight PCOS women have similarly increased OxLDL levels. Our results may indicate the presence of primary alteration in lipid metabolism in patients with PCOS. To answer the question whether the alteration in LDL particle size can by itself pose a higher cardiovascular risk, a careful follow-up of these women is needed.

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Cheol Ryong Ku, Thierry Brue, Katharina Schilbach, Stanislav Ignatenko, Sandor Magony, Yoon-Sok Chung, Byung-Joon Kim, Kyu Yeon Hur, Ho-Cheol Kang, Jung Hee Kim, Min Seon Kim, Aldona Kowalska, Marek Bolanowski, Marek Ruchala, Svetozar Damjanovic, Juraj Payer, Yun Jung Choi, Su Jin Heo, Tae Kyoung Kim, MinKyu Heo, Joan Lee and Eun Jig Lee


Hybrid Fc-fused rhGH (GX-H9) is a long-acting recombinant human growth hormone (GH) under clinical development for both adults and children with GH deficiency (GHD). We compared the safety, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of weekly and every other week (EOW) dosages of GX-H9 with those of daily GH administration in adult GHD (AGHD) patients.


This was a randomized, open-label, active-controlled and dose-escalation study conducted in 16 endocrinology centers in Europe and Korea.


Forty-five AGHD patients with or without prior GH treatment were enrolled. Patients with prior GH treatments were required to have received the last GH administration at least 1 month prior to randomization. Subjects were sequentially assigned to treatment groups. Fifteen subjects were enrolled to each treatment group and randomly assigned to receive either GX-H9 or Genotropin (4:1 ratio). GX-H9 dosage regimens for Groups 1, 2 and 3 were 0.1 mg/kg weekly, 0.3 mg/kg EOW and 0.2 mg/kg EOW, respectively. All Genotropin-assigned subjects received 6 µg/kg Genotropin, regardless of treatment group. Main outcome analyses included measurements of serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I), safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and immunogenicity.


Mean GX-H9 peak and total exposure increased with an increase in dose after a single-dose administration. The mean IGF-I response was sustained above baseline over the intended dose interval of 168 h for the weekly and 336 h for the EOW GX-H9 groups. Safety profiles and immunogenicity were not different across the treatment groups and with Genotropin.


GX-H9 has the potential for up to twice-monthly administration.