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Free access

Feyza Darendeliler, Sukran Poyrazoglu, Firdevs Bas, Ozlem Sancakli, and Gulbin Gokcay


Ghrelin is the natural ligand of GH secretagogue receptor. It has several metabolic functions including regulation of food intake, energy homeostasis, and body weight. An inverse relationship between fasting plasma ghrelin and insulin concentrations has been shown. Being born large for gestational age (LGA) has an increased risk of developing insulin resistance.


The aim of this study was to evaluate ghrelin levels in LGA born children who have no obesity at prepubertal ages and the effect of intrauterine and postnatal growth on ghrelin levels.

Patients and methods

Thirty-two (17F, 15M) LGA born non-obese children (mean (±s.e.m.) age 4.4±0.3 years) were evaluated with respect to glucose, insulin, and ghrelin levels. Their data were compared with that of non-obese 45 (19F, 26M) appropriate for gestational age (AGA) children (mean (±s.e.m.) age 4.0±0.1 years).


LGA children, who had similar age and body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (SDS) as AGA children, had significantly higher insulin (P=0.044) and at a borderline significance higher homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance levels (P=0.054) than AGA children. Ghrelin level was significantly lower in LGA born than AGA born children (P=0.001) even after controlling for age, sex, and BMI (P=0.006). There were no differences between genders in insulin and ghrelin levels. Multivariate analysis revealed that birth weight was the only significant parameter influencing ghrelin levels (R 2=0.13, B=−0.007, P=0.002).


LGA born non-obese prepubertal children have lower ghrelin levels when compared with age and BMI matched AGA children. Birth weight seems to have the only significant effect on the reduced ghrelin levels.

Open access

Irina Bacila, Nicole Freeman, Eleni Daniel, Marija Sandrk, Jillian Bryce, Salma Rashid Ali, Zehra Yavas Abalı, Navoda Atapattu, Tania A Bachega, Antonio Balsamo, Niels Birkebæk, Oliver Blankenstein, Walter Bonfig, Martine Cools, Eduardo Correa Costa, Feyza Darendeliler, Silvia Einaudi, Heba Hassan Elsedfy, Martijn Finken, Evelien Gevers, Hedi L Claahsen-van der Grinten, Tulay Guran, Ayla Güven, Sabine E. Hannema, Claire E Higham, Violeta Iotova, Hetty J. van der Kamp, Marta Korbonits, Ruth E Krone, Corina Lichiardopol, Andrea Luczay, Berenice Bilharinho Mendonca, Tatjana Milenkovic, Mirela C Miranda, Klaus Mohnike, Uta Neumann, Rita Ortolano, Sukran Poyrazoglu, Ajay Thankamony, Jeremy W Tomlinson, Ana Vieites, Liat de Vries, S Faisal Ahmed, Richard J Ross, and Nils P Krone

Objective: Despite published guidelines no unified approach to hormone replacement in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) exists. We aimed to explore geographical and temporal variations in the treatment with glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids in CAH.

Design: This retrospective multi-center study, including 31 centers (16 countries), analyzed data from the International-CAH Registry.

Methods: Data was collected from 461 patients aged 0-18 years with classic 21-hydroxylase deficiency (54.9% females) under follow-up between 1982 – 2018. Type, dose and timing of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid replacement was analyzed from 4174 patient visits.

Results: The most frequently used glucocorticoid was hydrocortisone (87.6%). Overall, there were significant differences between age groups with regards to daily hydrocortisone-equivalent dose for body surface, with the lowest dose (median with interquartile range) of 12.0 (10.0 – 14.5) mg/ m2/ day at age 1 - 8 years and the highest dose of 14.0 (11.6 - 17.4) mg/ m2/ day at age 12-18 years. Glucocorticoid doses decreased after 2010 in patients 0-8 years (p<0.001) and remained unchanged in patients aged 8-18 years. Fludrocortisone was used in 92% of patients, with relative doses decreasing with age. A wide variation was observed among countries with regards to all aspects of steroid hormone replacement.

Conclusions: Data from the I-CAH Registry suggests international variations in hormone replacement therapy, with a tendency to treatment with high doses in children.