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  • Author: Stephen J Marx x
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Amit Tirosh, Georgios Z Papadakis, Corina Millo, Samira M Sadowski, Peter Herscovitch, Karel Pacak, Stephen J Marx, Lily Yang, Pavel Nockel, Jasmine Shell, Patience Green, Xavier M Keutgen, Dhaval Patel, Naris Nilubol and Electron Kebebew

Objective

To determine the association between neuroendocrine tumor (NET) biomarker levels and the extent of disease as assessed by 68Ga DOTATATE PET/CT imaging.

Design

A retrospective analysis of a prospective database of patients with NETs.

Methods

Fasting plasma chromogranin A (CgA), neuron-specific enolase (NSE), gastrin, glucagon, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pancreatic polypeptide (PP), and 24-h urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) levels were measured. Correlation between biomarkers and total 68Ga-DOTATATE-avid tumor volume (TV) was analyzed.

Results

The analysis included 232 patients. In patients with pancreatic NETs (n = 112), 68Ga-DOTATATE TV correlated with CgA (r = 0.6, P = 0.001, Spearman). In patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (n = 39), 68Ga-DOTATATE TV correlated with glucagon (r = 0.5, P = 0.01) and PP levels (r = 0.5, P = 0.049). In patients with von Hippel–Lindau (n = 24), plasma VIP (r = 0.5, P = 0.02) and PP levels (r = 0.7, P < 0.001) correlated with 68Ga-DOTATATE TV. In patients with small intestine NET (SINET, n = 74), 68Ga-DOTATATE TV correlated with CgA (r = 0.5, P = 0.02) and 5-HIAA levels (r = 0.7, P < 0.001), with 5-HIAA ≥8.1 mg/24 h associated with metastatic disease with high positive (81.8%) and negative (85.7%) predictive values (P = 0.001). 68Ga-DOTATATE TV in patients with NET of unknown primary (n = 16) and those with NET of other primary location (n = 30) correlated with 5-HIAA levels (r = 0.8, P = 0.002 and r = 0.7, P = 0.02 respectively).

Conclusions

Our data supports the use of specific NET biomarkers based on the site of the primary NET and the presence of hereditary syndrome-associated NET. High urinary 5-HIAA levels indicate the presence of metastatic disease in patients with SINET.

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Rafael A Carvalho, Betsaida Urtremari, Alexander A L Jorge, Lucas S Santana, Elisangela P S Quedas, Tomoko Sekiya, Viviane C Longuini, Fabio L M Montenegro, Antonio M Lerario, Sergio P A Toledo, Stephen J Marx, Rodrigo A Toledo and Delmar M Lourenço Jr

Background

Loss-of-function germline MEN1 gene mutations account for 75–95% of patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1). It has been postulated that mutations in non-coding regions of MEN1 might occur in some of the remaining patients; however, this hypothesis has not yet been fully investigated.

Objective

To sequence for the entire MEN1 including promoter, exons and introns in a large MEN1 cohort and determine the mutation profile.

Methods and patients

A target next-generation sequencing (tNGS) assay comprising 7.2 kb of the full MEN1 was developed to investigate germline mutations in 76 unrelated MEN1 probands (49 familial, 27 sporadic). tNGS results were validated by Sanger sequencing (SS), and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assay was applied when no mutations were identifiable by both tNGS and SS.

Results

Germline MEN1 variants were verified in coding region and splicing sites of 57/76 patients (74%) by both tNGS and SS (100% reproducibility). Thirty-eight different pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants were identified, including 13 new and six recurrent variants. Three large deletions were detected by MLPA only. No mutation was detected in 16 patients. In untranslated, regulatory or in deep intronic MEN1 regions of the 76 MEN1 cases, no point or short indel pathogenic variants were found in untranslated, although 33 benign/likely benign and three new VUS variants were detected.

Conclusions

Our study documents that point or short indel mutations in non-coding regions of MEN1 are very rare events. Also, tNGS proved to be a highly effective technology for routine genetic MEN1 testing.