The normal function of the female reproductive system is closely linked to energy homeostasis with the ultimate scope of fertility and human race perpetuation through the centuries. During a woman's lifetime there are normal events such as puberty, pregnancy and menopause which are related to alterations in energy homeostasis and gonadal steroids levels followed by increase of body fat and insulin resistance, important components of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Pathological conditions such as premature adrenarche, polycystic ovary syndrome and gestational diabetes also present with shifts in gonadal steroid levels and reduced insulin sensitivity. The aim of this review is to discuss these conditions, both normal and pathological, analyzing the changes or abnormalities in ovarian function that coexist with metabolic abnormalities which resemble MetS in relationship with environmental, genetic and epigenetic factors.
Andromachi Vryonidou, Stavroula A Paschou, Giovanna Muscogiuri, Francesco Orio and Dimitrios G Goulis
Vasiliki Vasileiou, Eleni Kyratzoglou, Stavroula A Paschou, Miltiades Kyprianou and Eleni Anastasiou
To investigate a probable impact of seasons on the diagnosis of GDM, as well as the specific effect of the environmental temperature on the diagnosis of this clinical entity.
Patients and methods
Two observational studies, one retrospective and one prospective, were conducted in a referral center. Study A included retrospectively 7618 pregnant women who underwent a 3-h 100 g OGTT during the 3rd trimester of gestation. Study B prospectively included 768 pregnant women tested in the 3rd trimester of gestation with a 75 g OGTT. Temperature was recorded every day at 09:00 h.
Retrospective Study A: GDM prevalence differed significantly by season: winter = 28.1%, summer = 39.2%, spring = 32.4% and autumn = 32.4% (P < 0.0001). The odds ratio for being diagnosed with GDM was much higher during summer 1.65 (95% CI: 1.43–1.90), with spring and autumn following with 1.23 (95% CI: 1.08–1.39) compared to winter. Glucose levels during OGTT were measured: significantly increased blood glucose values were observed at 60, 120 and 180 min in summer, which remained significant after adjustment for age, gestational age, BMI, weight gain during pregnancy and blood pressure. Prospective Study B: At temperatures above 25°C, the average glucose 60-min and 120-min levels were increased. The relative risk for abnormal glucose values at 60 min, when the environmental temperature increased over 25°C, was 2.2 (1.5–3.3).
GDM prevalence in Greece presents seasonal variation, with higher risk during summer due to post glucose load level variations. These variations could be attributed to differences in environmental temperature.
Evangeline Vassilatou, Andromachi Vryonidou, Dimitrios Ioannidis, Stavroula A Paschou, Maria Panagou and Ioanna Tzavara
To investigate the possibility of a different prevalence of subclinical Cushing's syndrome (SCS) and potentially related morbidities between patients with unilateral adrenal incidentalomas (UAI) and bilateral adrenal incidentalomas (BAI), as existing data are few and controversial.
Prospective observational study.
Clinical examination, biochemical tests, and hormonal evaluation were performed in 298 consecutive patients with adrenal incidentalomas, unilateral in 224 patients (75.2%), bilateral in 74 patients (24.8%), with apparently benign masses based on imaging characteristics and after exclusion of overt endocrine disease. The diagnosis of SCS was based on a post-dexamethasone suppression test (2 mg dexamethasone/24 h for 48 h), with serum cortisol level ≥1.8 μg/dl combined with at least one abnormal result of the other hormonal measurements.
SCS was diagnosed in 66 out of 298 (22.1%) patients, being more frequent in patients with BAI (35.1 vs 17.9%, P=0.003, for BAI and UAI respectively). Hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance, and dyslipidemia were of a similar frequency in both groups. SCS patients with UAI and BAI did not differ in age, gender, BMI, waist circumference, and mass size. Factors related to SCS were the presence of BAI (OR, 3.24; 95% CI, 2.31–4.54) and mass size (OR, 2.63; 95% CI, 1.31–5.26).
BAI patients present more often with SCS when compared with UAI patients; however, morbidities potentially related to subtle cortisol hypersecretion were of a similar frequency in both groups. Further studies are needed to clarify whether this difference in hormonal activity may be related to different pathophysiologies.
Panagiotis Anagnostis, Konstantinos Christou, Aikaterini-Maria Artzouchaltzi, Nifon K Gkekas, Nikoletta Kosmidou, Pavlos Siolos, Stavroula A Paschou, Michael Potoupnis, Eustathios Kenanidis, Eleftherios Tsiridis, Irene Lambrinoudaki, John C Stevenson and Dimitrios G Goulis
Menopausal transition has been associated with a derangement of glucose metabolism. However, it is not known if early menopause (EM, defined as age at menopause <45 years) or premature ovarian insufficiency (POI, defined as age at menopause <40 years) are associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). To systematically investigate and meta-analyze the best evidence regarding the association of age at menopause with the risk of T2DM.
A comprehensive search was conducted in PubMed, CENTRAL and Scopus, up to January 31, 2018. Data are expressed as odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). The I 2 index was employed for heterogeneity.
Thirteen studies were included in the qualitative and quantitative analysis (191 762 postmenopausal women, 21 664 cases with T2DM). Both women with EM and POI were at higher risk of T2DM compared with those of age at menopause of 45–55 years (OR: 1.15, 95% CI: 1.04–1.26, P = 0.003; I 2: 61%, P < 0.002 and OR: 1.50, 95% CI: 1.03–2.19, P = 0.033; I 2: 75.2%, P < 0.003), respectively). Similar associations emerged when women with EM and POI were compared with those of age at menopause >45 years (OR: 1.12, 95% CI: 1.01–1.20, P < 0.02; I 2: 78%, P < 0.001 and OR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.03–2.27, P = 0.035; I 2: 78%, P < 0.001), respectively).
Both EM and POI are associated with increased risk of T2DM.