Autoimmune lymphocytic parathyroiditis and acquired hypocalciuric hypercalcemia associated with autoantibodies against the calcium-sensing receptor (anti-CaSR) are rare and poorly understood conditions. Here, we describe a patient with acquired parathyroid hormone (PTH)-dependent hypercalcemia with associated hypocalciuria, found to have true lymphocytic parathyroiditis on histopathology, and circulating anti-CaSR antibodies in serum.
Design and methods
A 64-year-old woman was referred to our clinic for persistent hypercalcemia after a subtotal parathyroidectomy. She was normocalcemic until the age of 63 years when she was diagnosed with primary hyperparathyroidism. She underwent subtotal parathyroidectomy with appropriate intraoperative PTH decline. Two weeks post-parathyroidectomy, she presented with persistent hypercalcemia and hyperparathyroidism. Urine studies revealed an inappropriately low 24-h urine calcium (Ca)/creatinine clearance ratio. Surgical pathology was consistent with true lymphocytic parathyroiditis with lymphoid follicles. The presence of circulating anti-CaSR antibodies was detected by immunoprecipitation of CaSR by the patient’s serum. After a 4-week course of prednisone, serum Ca and PTH normalized, and her anti-CaSR titers declined. She remains normocalcemic 10 months after the discontinuation of glucocorticoid therapy. We present this patient in the context of the relevant published literature on lymphocytic parathyroiditis and acquired hypocalciuric hypercalcemia related to anti-CaSR antibodies.
Autoimmune lymphocytic parathyroiditis and acquired hypocalciuric hypercalcemia associated with anti-CaSR antibodies is a very rare yet important condition to be considered in a patient with acquired PTH-dependent hypercalcemia with inappropriate hypocalciuria. Although subtotal parathyroidectomy is unlikely to correct the hypercalcemia, this entity may respond to a short course of prednisone therapy.