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Sandra Larcher, Anne-Sophie Gauchez, Sandrine Lablanche, Jean-Louis Pépin, Pierre-Yves Benhamou, and Anne-Laure Borel

Background

Sleep behavior is changing toward shorter sleep duration and a later chronotype. It results in a sleep debt that is acquitted on work-free days, inducing a small but recurrent sleep misalignment each week, referred to as “social jetlag”. These sleep habits could affect health through misalignment with circadian rhythms.

Objectives

The primary objective is to address the impact of sleep behavior on glycemic control, assessed by HbA1c, in patients with type 1 diabetes, independently of other lifestyle or sleep-related factors. The secondary objective is to address whether circadian phase affects glycemic control.

Design

In total, 80 adult patients with type 1 diabetes (46% female) were included in a clinical cohort study.

Methods

Sleep behavior was addressed objectively by a 7-day actimetry, lifestyle by questionnaires, sleep breathing disorders by nocturnal oximetry and circadian phase by dim light melatonin onset (DLMO).

Results

Univariate analyses showed that chronotype (r = 0.23, P = 0.042) and social jetlag (r = 0.30, P = 0.008) were significantly associated with HbA1c. In multivariable analysis, social jetlag was the only sleep habit independently associated with HbA1c (β = 0.012 (0.006; 0.017), P < 0.001). HbA1c was lower in patients with a social jetlag below versus above the median (7.7% (7.1–8.7) and 8.7% (7.6–9.8), P = 0.011). DLMO was not associated with HbA1c. However, the later the DLMO, the worse the sleep efficiency (r = −0.41, P < 0.001) and fragmentation index (r = 0.35, P = 0.005).

Conclusions

Social jetlag, a small but recurrent circadian misalignment, is associated with worse glycemic control in type 1 diabetes, whereas circadian phase is not. Further intervention studies should address the potential improvement of glycemic control by correcting social jetlag.

Free access

Blandine Tramunt, Sarra Smati, Sandrine Coudol, Matthieu Wargny, Matthieu Pichelin, Béatrice Guyomarch, Abdallah Al-Salameh, Coralie Amadou, Sara Barraud, Édith Bigot, Lyse Bordier, Sophie Borot, Muriel Bourgeon, Olivier Bourron, Sybil Charriere, Nicolas Chevalier, Emmanuel Cosson, Bruno Fève, Anna Flaus-Furmaniuk, Pierre Fontaine, Amandine Galioot, Céline Gonfroy-Leymarie, Bruno Guerci, Sandrine Lablanche, Jean-Daniel Lalau, Etienne Larger, Adele Lasbleiz, Bruno Laviolle, Michel Marre, Marion Munch, Louis Potier, Gaëtan Prévost, Eric Renard, Yves Reznik, Dominique Seret-begue, Paul Sibilia, Philippe Thuillier, Bruno Vergès, Jean-Francois Gautier, Samy Hadjadj, Bertrand Cariou, Franck Mauvais-Jarvis, and Pierre Gourdy

Objective:

Male sex is a determinant of severe coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to characterize sex differences in severe outcomes in adults with diabetes hospitalized for COVID-19.

Methods:

We performed a sex-stratified analysis of clinical and biological features and outcomes (i.e. invasive mechanical ventilation [IMV], death, intensive care unit [ICU] admission and home discharge at day 7 [D7] or day 28 [D28]) in 2,380 patients with diabetes hospitalized for COVID-19 and included in the nationwide CORONADO observational study (NCT04324736).

Results:

The study population was predominantly male (63.5%). After multiple adjustments, female sex was negatively associated with the primary outcome (IMV and/or death, OR 0.66 [0.49-0.88]), death (OR 0.49 [0.30-0.79]) and ICU admission (OR 0.57 [0.43-0.77]) at D7, but only with ICU admission (OR 0.58 [0.43-0.77]) at D28. Older age and a history of microvascular complications were predictors of death at D28 in both sexes, while chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was predictive of death in women only. At admission, CRP, AST and eGFR predicted death in both sexes. Lymphocytopenia was an independent predictor of death in women only, while thrombocytopenia and elevated plasma glucose concentration were predictors of death in men only.

Conclusions:

In patients with diabetes admitted for COVID-19, female sex was associated with lower incidence of early severe outcomes, but did not influence the overall in-hospital mortality, suggesting that diabetes mitigates the female protection from COVID-19 severity. Sex-associated biological determinants may be useful to optimize COVID-19 prevention and management in women and men.