OBJECTIVE: To assess whether some of the alterations in energy homeostasis present in thyroid function disorders and GH deficiency could be mediated by ghrelin. DESIGN: To assess the influence of thyroid status on ghrelin, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with vehicle (euthyroid), amino-triazole (hypothyroid) or l-thyroxine (hyperthyroid). The influence of GH on ghrelin was assessed in wild-type (control) and GH-deficient (dwarf) Lewis rats. Evaluation of gastric ghrelin mRNA expression in the stomach was carried out by Northern blot. Circulating levels of ghrelin were measured by radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: Hypothyroidism resulted in an increase in gastric ghrelin mRNA levels (euthyroid: 100+/-3.2% vs hypothyroid: 127.3+/-6.5%; P<0.01), being decreased in hyperthyroid rats (70+/-5.4%; P<0.01). In keeping with these results, circulating plasma ghrelin levels were increased in hypothyroid (euthyroid: 124+/-11 pg/ml vs hypothyroid: 262+/-39 pg/ml; P<0.01) and decreased in hyperthyroid rats (75+/-6 pg/ml; P<0.01). Using an experimental model of GH deficiency, namely the dwarf rat, we found a decrease in gastric ghrelin mRNA levels (controls: 100+/-6% vs dwarf: 66+/-5.5%; P<0.01) and circulating plasma ghrelin levels (controls: 124+/-12 pg/ml vs dwarf: 81+/-7 pg/ml; P<0.01). CONCLUSION: This study provides the first evidence that ghrelin gene expression is influenced by thyroid hormones and GH status and provides further evidence that ghrelin may play an important role in the alteration of energy homeostasis and body weight present in these pathophysiological states.
JE Caminos, LM Seoane, SA Tovar, FF Casanueva and C Dieguez
LM Seoane, SA Tovar, D Perez, F Mallo, M Lopez, R Senaris, FF Casanueva and C Dieguez
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Orexins (OXs) are a newly described family of hypothalamic neuropeptides. Based on the distribution of OX neurons and their receptors in the brain, it has been postulated that they could play a role in the regulation of neuroendocrine function. GH secretion is markedly influenced by nutritional status and body weight. To investigate the role OX-A plays in the neuroregulation of GH secretion we have studied its effect on spontaneous GH secretion as well as GH responses to GHRH and ghrelin in freely moving rats. Finally, we also assessed the effect of OX-A on in vitro GH secretion. METHODS: We administered OX-A (10 microg, i.c.v.) or vehicle (10 microl, i.c.v.) to freely moving rats. Spontaneous GH secretion was assessed over 6 h with blood samples taken every 15 min. RESULTS: Administration of OX-A led to a decrease in spontaneous GH secretion in comparison with vehicle-treated rats, as assessed by mean GH levels (means+/-s.e.m. 4.2+/-1.7 ng/ml vs 9.4+/-2.2 ng/ml; P<0.05), mean GH amplitude (3.6+/-0.5 ng/ml vs 20.8+/-5.6 ng/ml; P<0.01) and area under the curve (848+/-379 ng/ml per 4 h vs 1957+/-458 ng/ml per 4 h; P<0.05). In contrast, OX-A failed to modify in vivo GH responses to GHRH (10 microg/kg, i.v.) although it markedly blunted GH responses to ghrelin (40 microg/kg, i.v.) (mean peak GH levels: 331+/-71 ng/ml, vehicle, vs 43+/-11 ng/ml in OX-A-treated rats; P<0.01). Finally, OX-A infusion (10(-7), 10(-8) or 10(-9) M) failed to modify in vitro basal GH secretion or GH responses to GHRH, ghrelin and KCl. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that OX-A plays an inhibitory role in GH secretion and may act as a bridge among the regulatory signals that are involved in the control of growth, nutritional status and sleep regulation.