OBJECTIVE: Disturbed renal function may play an important role in the clinico-pathological presentation of primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT). We studied the influence of renal function on the clinico-pathological characteristics of 141 patients (123 women and 18 men) with surgically proven pHPT. METHODS: The 141 patients were assigned to one of two groups based on creatinine clearance (C(cr)) level: a renal insufficiency group (n=37) in which C(cr) of patients was <70 ml/min and a normal renal function group (n=104) in which C(cr) was > or =70 ml/min. Clinical presentation and biochemical indices were evaluated and compared between the two groups. RESULTS: Age, and frequency of hypertension and of diabetes mellitus were significantly (P<0.001, P<0.05 and P<0.05 respectively) higher in the renal insufficiency group than in the normal renal function group. Serum levels of calcium, intact parathyroid hormone and bone Gla protein were significantly (P<0.05) higher and the excised parathyroid weighed significantly more (P<0.05) in the renal insufficiency group than in the normal renal function group; however, serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)(2)D) and 24 h urinary calcium excretion were significantly (P<0.001 and P<0.05 respectively) lower in the former than in the latter group. There was a significant inverse correlation between C(cr) level and serum calcium (r=0.315, P<0.001) and a significant positive correlation between C(cr) level, 1,25(OH)(2)D (r=0.315, P<0.001), and 24 h calcium excretion (r=0.458, P<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Clinico-pathological features of pHPT were notably influenced by even moderate renal insufficiency. Urinary calcium excretion decreased according to the decrease in glomerular filtration rate. Therefore, endocrinologists need to appraise urinary calcium excretion and renal function of pHPT patients when considering surgery or in discriminating familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia.
H Yamashita, S Noguchi, S Uchino, S Watanabe, T Murakami, T Ogawa, T Masatsugu, Y Takamatsu, E Miyatake and H Yamashita
H Yamashita, P Gao, T Cantor, T Futata, T Murakami, S Uchino, S Watanabe, H Kawamoto, M Fukagawa and S Noguchi
OBJECTIVE: It was discovered that an immunoreactive large carboxy-terminal parathyroid hormone (PTH) fragment (large C-PTH), likely 7-84 PTH, is present in the circulation. However, very little is known about the production and metabolism of this large C-PTH. Combining a whole molecule PTH (whole PTH) immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) specifically for 1-84 PTH and an intact PTH (iPTH) IRMA for the sum of 1-84 PTH and large C-PTH, we were able to assess the circulating level of this large C-PTH as well as the glandular secretion and metabolism of this large C-PTH in primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT). METHODS: This study consisted of two patient groups consisting of 77 pHPT patients with a single adenoma. Of these, 43 comprised the venous sampling study group and 70 comprised the intra-operative PTH study group. (Seven patients belonged only to the former group, 34 patients to only the latter group, and 36 patients to both groups.) Preoperatively, blood samples were drawn from the bilateral internal jugular vein by ultrasonographic guidance and from the peripheral vein (n=43). During surgery, blood samples were drawn after anesthesia (basal level), before excision (pre-excision level) of one enlarged parathyroid gland, and at 5, 10, and 15 min post-excision (n=70). RESULTS: There were 26 patients whose iPTH assay levels differed by more than 10% between the right and left internal jugular. In 24 of the 26 patients, the large C-PTH levels obtained from the adenoma side were significantly higher than those from the contralateral side (117+/-135 vs 43+/-33 pg/ml, P<0.001). The plasma whole PTH values decreased more rapidly than the iPTH values after parathyroidectomy (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our study has demonstrated that the large C-PTH, likely 7-84 PTH, is directly released from the parathyroid gland in humans. Since the half-life of 1-84 PTH is much shorter than large C-PTH, likely 7-84 PTH, it would be advantageous to use an assay that specifically measures 1-84 PTH for intra-operative monitoring of parathyroidectomy.
Y. Okada, T. Onishi, K. Tanaka, S. Morimoto, M. Tsuji, K. Watanabe, A. Okazaki, T. Takeuchi and Y. Kumahara
Prolactin (PRL) and TSH responses to TRH, chlorpromazine (CPZ) and L-DOPA were studied in 23 children (15 male and 8 female) with human growth hormone (HGH) deficiency. Eight patients (group I) showed normal PRL response to TRH and CPZ but TSH response to TRH was delayed in 4 of this group. Twelve patients (group II) had normal (4 patients) or higher (8 patients) baseline PRL level and showed lower PRL response to CPZ than that to TRH. TSH response to TRH was normal in 3, blunted in 1, and delayed in 8 patients. Three patients (group III) had no PRL response to either TRH or CPZ. TSH response to TRH was normal in 1 but blunted in 2 patients. Of 8 patients with a higher baseline PRL level (group II and III), L-DOPA suppressed PRL secretion to less than 50 % of the initial value in 7 patients, but not in 1 patient, in whom the diagnosis of hypothalamic tumour was established on brain surgery following these examinations. These results suggest that hypothalamic disorders are involved in more than half of 23 children with HGH deficiency.