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L Martinerie, A Condat, A Bargiacchi, C Bremont-Weill, M C de Vries and S E Hannema

Over the past 20 years, the care for transgender adolescents has developed throughout many countries following the ‘Dutch Approach’ initiated in the 90s in pioneer countries as the Netherlands, United States and Canada, with increasing numbers of children and adolescents seeking care in transgender clinics. This medical approach has considerable positive impacts on the psychological outcomes of these adolescents, and several studies have been recently published underlining the relative safety of such treatments. This paper reviews the current standards of care for transgender children and adolescents with particular emphasis on disparities among countries and short-to-medium-term outcomes. Finally, it highlights ethical considerations regarding categorization of gender dysphoria, timing of treatment initiation, infertility and how to deal with the long-term consequences.

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S Kos, C M Cobbaert, T M Kuijper, W Oostdijk, S E Hannema, J M Wit, N Biermasz and B E P B Ballieux