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Renata C Scalco, Vivian Hwa, Horacio M Domené, Héctor G Jasper, Alicia Belgorosky, Roxana Marino, Alberto M Pereira, Carlos A Tonelli, Jan M Wit, Ron G Rosenfeld, and Alexander A L Jorge

Context and objective

GH insensitivity with immune dysfunction caused by STAT5B mutations is an autosomal recessive condition. Heterozygous mutations in other genes involved in growth regulation were previously associated with a mild height reduction. Our objective was to assess for the first time the phenotype of heterozygous STAT5B mutations.


We genotyped and performed clinical and laboratory evaluations in 52 relatives of two previously described Brazilian brothers with homozygous STAT5B c.424_427del mutation (21 heterozygous). Additionally, we obtained height data and genotype from 1104 adult control individuals from the same region in Brazil and identified five additional families harboring the same mutation (18 individuals, 11 heterozygous). Furthermore, we gathered the available height data from first-degree relatives of patients with homozygous STAT5B mutations (17 individuals from seven families). Data from heterozygous individuals and non-carriers were compared.


Individuals carrying heterozygous STAT5B c.424_427del mutation were 0.6 SDS shorter than their non-carrier relatives (P=0.009). Heterozygous subjects also had significantly lower SDS for serum concentrations of IGF1 (P=0.028) and IGFBP3 (P=0.02) than their non-carrier relatives. The 17 heterozygous first-degree relatives of patients carrying homozygous STAT5B mutations had an average height SDS of −1.4±0.8 when compared with population-matched controls (P< 0.001).


STAT5B mutations in the heterozygous state have a significant negative impact on height (∼3.9 cm). This effect is milder than the effect seen in the homozygous state, with height usually within the normal range. Our results support the hypothesis that heterozygosity of rare pathogenic variants contributes to normal height heritability.

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Mariana Costanzo, María Sol Touzon, Roxana Marino, Gabriela Guercio, Pablo Ramirez, María Celeste Mattone, Natalia Pérez Garrido, María Marcela Bailez, Elisa Vaiani, Marta Ciaccio, María Laura Galluzzo Mutti, Alicia Belgorosky, and Esperanza Berensztein


Differences/disorders of sex development (DSD) are congenital conditions in which the development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomical sex is atypical.


The aim of this study is to report the histological characteristics and immunoexpression patterns of gonadal parenchyma in patients with 46,XX testicular and ovotesticular DSD, with a focus on the detection of germ cell malignancies.


Inclusion criteria were SRY-negative 46,XX testicular and ovotesticular DSD with available samples from gonadal biopsy or gonadectomy for the review of histological findings. Gonadal histology was assessed on hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections and immunohistochemical analysis. Histopathological criteria from the last World Health Organization classification of urogenital tumors were used to identify undifferentiated gonadal tissue, gonadoblastoma, and dysgerminoma.


Median age at first histological evaluation of gonadal samples was 1.46 years (range: 0.16–16 years). Totally 15 patients were classified as ovotesticular and only 1 as testicular DSD. Most individuals had bilateral ovotestes (12/15). No histological alterations were found in the ovarian parenchyma, while signs of dysgenesis were seen in all cases of testicular parenchyma. In 4/15 ovotesticular DSD, a prepubertal biopsy failed to identify ovarian parenchyma. We detected early prepubertal preinvasive and invasive malignancies in this cohort (five patients had undifferentiated gonadal tissue, five gonadoblastoma, and one dysgerminoma).


46,XX disorders of gonadal development are historically considered at a low risk for germ cell cancer, and the need for assessment of gonadal histology has been questioned. The finding of early germ cell malignancies in our cohort brings awareness and needs further research.