Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an inherited syndrome that is characterised by the occurrence of tumours in the parathyroid glands, the endocrine pancreas, the pituitary gland and the adrenal glands and by neuroendocrine carcinoid tumours, often at a young age. The penetrance of MEN1 among gene carriers is reported to be high; 82–99% at age 50. We present a patient with a history of parathyroid adenomas also showing signs of acromegaly. He turned out to be a carrier of a MEN1 germ-line mutation in intron 3 (IVS3-6C > G). This germ-line mutation was also found in nine of his family members. However, none of these relatives have developed any MEN1-related lesion yet, although several are older than 60 years. To our knowledge, a MEN1 family with as few clinical features as this family has not been reported to date. Because MEN1 patients have an increased risk of developing acromegaly, insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) levels are monitored periodically. We investigated whether IGF-I levels might serve as a presymptomatic marker for acromegaly; 9% (3/33) of MEN1 patients showed temporary IGF-I elevations. One patient (1/3) later developed clinical signs of acromegaly. Possibly, acromegaly in MEN1 is preceded by a transient preacromegalic state.
Koen M A Dreijerink, André P van Beek, Eef G W M Lentjes, Jan G Post, Rob B van der Luijt, Marijke R Canninga-van Dijk and Cornelis J M Lips
Hanneke J B H Beijers, Nike M L Stikkelbroeck, Arjen R Mensenkamp, Rolph Pfundt, Rob B van der Luijt, Henri J L M Timmers, Ad R M M Hermus and Marlies J E Kempers
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an autosomal dominant disease caused by mutations in the tumor suppressor gene MEN1 and can be diagnosed based on clinical, familial and/or genetic criteria. We present a family in which we found both germline and somatic mosaicism for MEN1.
In our proband, we diagnosed MEN1. The mutation was not detected in her parents (DNA extracted from leucocytes). When her brother was found to harbor the same MEN1 mutation as our proband and, around the same time, their father was diagnosed with a neuroendocrine carcinoma, this tumor was investigated for the MEN1 mutation as well. In the histologic biopsy of this tumor, the same MEN1 mutation was detected as previously found in his children. Re-analysis of his blood using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) showed a minimal, but consistently decreased signal for the MEN1-specific MLPA probes. The deletion was confirmed in his son by high-resolution array analysis. Based on the array data, we concluded that the deletion was limited to the MEN1 gene and that the father had both germline and somatic mosaicism for MEN1.
To our knowledge, this is the first reported family with combined germline and somatic mosaicism for MEN1. This study illustrates that germline mosaicism is important to consider in apparently sporadic de novo MEN1 mutations, because of its particular importance for genetic counseling, specifically when evaluating the risk for family members and when considering the possibility of somatic mosaicism in the parent with germline mosaicism.
Joanne M de Laat, Emma Tham, Carolina R C Pieterman, Menno R Vriens, Johannes A N Dorresteijn, Michiel L Bots, Magnus Nordenskjöld, Rob B van der Luijt and Gerlof D Valk
Endocrine diseases that can be part of the rare inheritable syndrome multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) commonly occur in the general population. Patients at risk for MEN1, and consequently their families, must be identified to prevent morbidity through periodic screening for the detection and treatment of manifestations in an early stage. The aim of the study was to develop a model for predicting MEN1 in individual patients with sporadically occurring endocrine tumors.
In a nationwide study in The Netherlands, patients with sporadically occurring endocrine tumors in whom the referring physician suspected the MEN1 syndrome were identified between 1998 and 2011 (n=365). Logistic regression analysis with internal validation using bootstrapping and external validation with a cohort from Sweden was used.
A MEN1 mutation was found in 15.9% of 365 patients. Recurrent primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT; odds ratio (OR) 162.40); nonrecurrent pHPT (OR 25.78); pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) and duodenal NETs (OR 17.94); pituitary tumor (OR 4.71); NET of stomach, thymus, or bronchus (OR 25.84); positive family history of NET (OR 4.53); and age (OR 0.96) predicted MEN1. The c-statistic of the prediction model was 0.86 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.81–0.90) in the derivation cohort and 0.77 (95% CI 0.66–0.88) in the validation cohort.
With the prediction model, the risk of MEN1 can be calculated in patients suspected for MEN1 with sporadically occurring endocrine tumors.