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Riccardo Schiaffini, Claudia Brufani, Beatrice Russo, Danilo Fintini, Antonella Migliaccio, Lia Pecorelli, Carla Bizzarri, Vincenzina Lucidi, and Marco Cappa

A long pre-diabetic phase of abnormal glucose tolerance is described in subjects with cystic fibrosis (CF) since childhood.

Objective

The aims of the study were to compare oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) in the diagnosis of altered glucose metabolism, and to longitudinally evaluate the role of CGMS in predicting glucose metabolism deterioration in children with CF.

Methods

Seventeen children with CF and 14 controls were enrolled (mean age 13.3±3.0 years). All subjects underwent OGTT and CGMS registration. On the basis of OGTT, children were classified as normal glucose tolerance, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), IGT plus at least one glucose value above 200 mg/dl at intermediate OGTT points (IGT+200) and CF-related diabetes (CFRD). HbA1c, glucose area under the curve, insulin sensitivity, and insulinogenic and disposition indexes were also considered. Subjects with CF underwent another OGTT after 2.5 years.

Results

Baseline OGTT revealed 3/17 (7.6%) children with CF with at least one glucose value above 200 mg/dl (1 CFRD and 2 IGT+200), while CGMS revealed 6/17 (35.3%) children with glucose excursions above 200 mg/dl (P=0.010). None of the controls showed glucose over 200 mg/dl either at OGTT or at CGMS. At the 2.5-year follow-up OGTT, all the six subjects who had diabetic glucose excursion (i.e. >200 mg/dl) at baseline CGMS presented IGT+200 or CFRD. In logistic regression analysis, CGMS diabetic excursion was the strongest predictor of IGT+200 and CFRD (P<0.001).

Conclusions

CGMS could be a useful tool to predict glucose metabolism derangements in children affected by CF.

Free access

Claudia Brufani, Alberto Tozzi, Danilo Fintini, Paolo Ciampalini, Armando Grossi, Rossana Fiori, Daniela Kiepe, Melania Manco, Riccardo Schiaffini, Ottavia Porzio, Marco Cappa, and Fabrizio Barbetti

Background

Puberty is a period of rapid growth associated with metabolic, hormonal, and body composition changes that can influence risk factors for chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes.

Objective

To evaluate body composition and insulin sensitivity (IS) modifications throughout puberty in a large group of obese Caucasian subjects.

Methods

Five hundred and nineteen obese subjects (4–19 years), grouped according to gender and Tanner stage (T), underwent oral glucose tolerance test. Quantitative insulin check index (QUICKI) and ISI were calculated as indexes of IS. In 309 subjects, body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, IGF1, adiponectin, and leptin were also evaluated.

Results

Body composition modifications were sexually dimorphic, with girls not modifying fat and lean percentage and fat distribution (P>0.15), and boys decreasing fat percentage and increasing lean percentage and central fat depot (P<0.001) across Ts. IS decreased during mid-puberty and returned to prepubertal levels by the end of puberty. Girls showed lower IS than boys (P<0.01 and =0.03 for QUICKI and ISI respectively). In multivariate analysis factors that negatively influenced IS, independently from T or age, were total fat mass and central fat depot in girls (P<0.05 and <0.01, respectively), total fat and lean mass in boys (P<0.01). IGF1, adiponectin, and leptin were not related to pubertal IS.

Conclusions

In obese Caucasian subjects, further decrease of IS observed during puberty is a transient phenomenon. Factors that independently from T or age influence IS are central fat depot in girls, lean amount in boys, and total fat mass in both sexes.

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Riccardo Bonfanti, Dario Iafusco, Ivana Rabbone, Giacomo Diedenhofen, Carla Bizzarri, Patrizia Ippolita Patera, Petra Reistadler, Francesco Costantino, Valeria Calcaterra, Lorenzo Iughetti, Silvia Savastio, Anna Favia, Francesca Cardella, Donatella Lopresti, Ylenia Girtler, Sarah Rabbiosi, Giuseppe D'Annunzio, Angela Zanfardino, Alessia Piscopo, Francesca Casaburo, Letizia Pintomalli, Lucia Russo, Valeria Grasso, Nicola Minuto, Mafalda Mucciolo, Antonio Novelli, Antonella Marucci, Barbara Piccini, Sonia Toni, Francesca Silvestri, Paola Carrera, Andrea Rigamonti, Giulio Frontino, Michela Trada, Davide Tinti, Maurizio Delvecchio, Novella Rapini, Riccardo Schiaffini, Corrado Mammì, and Fabrizio Barbetti

Objective: Transient neonatal diabetes mellitus (TNDM) is caused by activating mutations in ABCC8 and KCNJ11 genes (KATP/TNDM) or by chromosome 6q24 abnormalities (6q24/TNDM). We wanted to assess whether these different genetic aetiologies result in distinct clinical features.

Design: Retrospective analysis of the Italian data set of patients with TNDM.

Methods: Clinical features and treatment of 22 KATP/ TNDM patients and 12 6q24/TNDM patients were compared.

Results: Fourteen KATP/TNDM probands had a carrier parent with abnormal glucose values, four patients with 6q24 showed macroglossia and/or umbilical hernia. Median age at diabetes onset and birth weight were lower in patients with 6q24 (1 week; -2.27 SD) than those with KATP mutations (4.0 weeks; -1.04 SD) (p=0.009 and p=0.007, respectively). Median time to remission was longer in KATP/TNDM than 6q24/TNDM (21.5 vs 12 weeks) (p=0.002). Two KATP/TNDM patients entered diabetes remission without pharmacological therapy. A proband with the ABCC8/L225P variant previously associated with permanent neonatal diabetes entered 7-year long remission after 1 year of sulfonylurea therapy. Seven diabetic individuals with KATP mutations were successfully treated with sulfonylurea monotherapy; four cases with relapsing 6q24/TNDM were treated with insulin, metformin or combination therapy.

Conclusions: If TNDM is suspected, KATP genes should be analyzed first with the exception of patients with macroglossia and/or umbilical hernia. Remission of diabetes without pharmacological therapy should not preclude genetic analysis. Early treatment with sulfonylurea may induce long-lasting remission of diabetes in patients with KATP mutations associated with PNDM. Adult patients carrying KATP/TNDM mutations respond favourably to sulfonylurea monotherapy.