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Fadil M Hannan, Nicholas A Athanasou, James Teh, Christopher L M H Gibbons, Brian Shine and Rajesh V Thakker

Oncogenic osteomalacia (OOM) is characterised by tumour production of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) that results in hypophosphataemia and renal phosphate wasting, reduced 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) synthesis and osteomalacia. Here, we demonstrate the roles of serum FGF23 and 1,25(OH)2D3, together with the lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1 (LYVE-1), as biomarkers for OOM. A previously well 52-year-old man presented with a 2-year history of generalised musculoskeletal pain and proximal myopathy. He had hypophosphataemia, elevated serum alkaline phosphatase activity, low serum 1,25(OH)2D3 and a reduced tubular maximum of phosphate/glomerular filtration rate. These findings indicated a diagnosis of OOM, but magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and octreotide scintigraphy did not identify any tumours. Treatment with oral phosphate and calcitriol resolved the symptoms and biochemical abnormalities within 6 months. Four years later, he relapsed whilst on treatment with oral phosphate and calcitriol. Serum FGF23 concentration was elevated and MRI identified a 2 cm tumour within Hoffa's fat pad of the left knee. Removal of the tumour resulted in a complete resolution of symptoms and normalisation of the serum biochemical abnormalities including serum FGF23. Histology demonstrated a phosphaturic mesenchymal tumour, mixed connective tissue variant (PMTMCT), which revealed immunostaining with anti-LYVE-1 antibody and hence the presence of lymphatic vessels. Serum FGF23 and 1,25(OH)2D3 were found to be reliable biomarkers for OOM. In addition, the demonstration of lymphatics in the PMTMCT helps to distinguish this tumour from most typical benign haemangiomas.

Open access

Jens Bollerslev, Camilla Schalin-Jantti, Lars Rejnmark, Heide Siggelkow, Hans Morreau, Rajesh V Thakker, Antonio Sitges-Serra, Filomena Cetani and Claudio Marcocci

PARAT, a new European Society of Endocrinology program, aims to identify unmet scientific and educational needs of parathyroid disorders, such as primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), including parathyroid cancer (PC), and hypoparathyroidism (HypoPT). The discussions and consensus statements from the first PARAT workshop (September 2018) are reviewed.

PHPT has a high prevalence in Western communities, PHPT has a high prevalence in Western communities, yet evidence is sparse concerning the

natural history and whether morbidity and long-term outcomes are related to hypercalcemia or plasma PTH concentrations, or both. Cardiovascular mortality and prevalence of low energy fractures are increased, whereas Quality of Life is decreased, although their reversibility by treatment of PHPT has not been convincingly demonstrated. PC is a rare cause of PHPT, with an increasing incidence, and international collaborative studies are required to advance knowledge of the genetic mechanisms, biomarkers for disease activity, and optimal treatments. For example, ~20% of PCs demonstrate high mutational burden, and identifying targetable DNA variations, gene amplifications and gene fusions may facilitate personalized care, such as different forms of immunotherapy or targeted therapy.

HypoPT, a designated orphan disease, is associated with a high risk of symptoms and complications. Most cases are secondary to neck surgery. However, there is a need to better understand the relation between disease biomarkers and intellectual function, and to establish the role of PTH in target tissues, as these may facilitate the appropriate use of PTH substitution therapy.

Management of parathyroid disorders is challenging, and PARAT has highlighted the need for international transdisciplinary scientific and educational studies in advancing in this field.