Oncogenic osteomalacia (OOM) is characterised by tumour production of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) that results in hypophosphataemia and renal phosphate wasting, reduced 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) synthesis and osteomalacia. Here, we demonstrate the roles of serum FGF23 and 1,25(OH)2D3, together with the lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1 (LYVE-1), as biomarkers for OOM. A previously well 52-year-old man presented with a 2-year history of generalised musculoskeletal pain and proximal myopathy. He had hypophosphataemia, elevated serum alkaline phosphatase activity, low serum 1,25(OH)2D3 and a reduced tubular maximum of phosphate/glomerular filtration rate. These findings indicated a diagnosis of OOM, but magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and octreotide scintigraphy did not identify any tumours. Treatment with oral phosphate and calcitriol resolved the symptoms and biochemical abnormalities within 6 months. Four years later, he relapsed whilst on treatment with oral phosphate and calcitriol. Serum FGF23 concentration was elevated and MRI identified a 2 cm tumour within Hoffa's fat pad of the left knee. Removal of the tumour resulted in a complete resolution of symptoms and normalisation of the serum biochemical abnormalities including serum FGF23. Histology demonstrated a phosphaturic mesenchymal tumour, mixed connective tissue variant (PMTMCT), which revealed immunostaining with anti-LYVE-1 antibody and hence the presence of lymphatic vessels. Serum FGF23 and 1,25(OH)2D3 were found to be reliable biomarkers for OOM. In addition, the demonstration of lymphatics in the PMTMCT helps to distinguish this tumour from most typical benign haemangiomas.
Fadil M Hannan, Nicholas A Athanasou, James Teh, Christopher L M H Gibbons, Brian Shine and Rajesh V Thakker
Aliya A Khan, Christian A Koch, Stan Van Uum, Jean Patrice Baillargeon, Jens Bollerslev, Maria Luisa Brandi, Claudio Marcocci, Lars Rejnmark, Rene Rizzoli, M Zakarea Shrayyef, Rajesh Thakker, Bulent O Yildiz and Bart Clarke
Purpose: To provide practice recommendations for the diagnosis and management of hypoparathyroidism in adults.
Methods: Key questions pertaining to the diagnosis and management of hypoparathyroidism were addressed following a literature review. We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases from January 2000 to March 2018 using keywords ‘hypoparathyroidism, diagnosis, treatment, calcium, PTH, calcidiol, calcitriol, hydrochlorothiazide and pregnancy’. Only English language papers involving humans were included. We excluded letters, reviews and editorials. The quality of evidence was evaluated based on the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. These standards of care for hypoparathyroidism have been endorsed by the Canadian Society of Endocrinology and Metabolism.
Results: Hypoparathyroidism is a rare disease characterized by hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia and a low or inappropriately normal serum parathyroid hormone level (PTH). The majority of cases are post-surgical (75%) with nonsurgical causes accounting for the remaining 25% of cases. A careful review is required to determine the etiology of the hypoparathyroidism in individuals with nonsurgical disease. Hypoparathyroidism is associated with significant morbidity and poor quality of life. Treatment requires close monitoring as well as patient education. Conventional therapy with calcium supplements and active vitamin D analogs is effective in improving serum calcium as well as in controlling the symptoms of hypocalcemia. PTH replacement is of value in lowering the doses of calcium and active vitamin D analogs required and may be of value in lowering long-term complications of hypoparathyroidism. This manuscript addresses acute and chronic management of hypoparathyroidism in adults.
Main conclusions: Hypoparathyroidism requires careful evaluation and pharmacologic intervention in order to improve serum calcium and control the symptoms of hypocalcemia. Frequent laboratory monitoring of the biochemical profile and patient education is essential to achieving optimal control of serum calcium.