BACKGROUND: Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-K) is implicated in various cellular processes involving signaling, including intracellular trafficking. PI3-K has been shown to play a part in both receptor- and non-receptor-mediated transcytosis across cultured kidney cells and undifferentiated thyroid cells. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of PI3-K in transcytosis of thyroglobulin (Tg) across differentiated cultured Fisher rat thyroid cells (FRTL-5 cells) - a process known to be mediated by megalin, a member of the low-density lipoprotein receptor family. DESIGN: We studied the effect of the microbial product wortmannin, a specific inhibitor of PI3-K, on transcytosis of Tg across FRTL-5 cells. METHODS: Transcytosis experiments were performed using FRTL-5 cells cultured as tight layers on filters in the upper chamber of dual chambered devices, with megalin expression exclusively on the upper cell surface. Tg was added to the upper chamber and cells were incubated at 37 degrees C. Transcytosed Tg was measured in fluids collected from the lower chamber. To study the role of PI3-K, cells were pre-incubated with wortmannin. RESULTS: Pre-incubation of FRTL-5 cells with wortmannin did not affect Tg binding and uptake, but resulted in a considerable increase in Tg transcytosis (by 40-75%, depending on the concentration of wortmannin), suggesting that PI3-K exerts an inhibitory effect on Tg transcytosis. In experiments in which a monoclonal antibody against megalin was used to reduce Tg transcytosis, pre-incubation with wortmannin did not increase Tg transcytosis from its reduced levels, indicating that PI3-K is involved in the megalin-mediated pathway. Wortmannin did not affect the extent of release of tri-iodothyronine from exogenously added Tg by FRTL-5 cells, which was used as a measure of Tg degradation in the lysosomal pathway, indicating that the effect of PI3-K on transcytosis occurs after diversion of Tg from the lysosomal pathway. CONCLUSIONS: PI3-K exerts an inhibitory role on megalin-mediated Tg transcytosis across cultured thyroid cells. PI3-K action takes place at a post-sorting level, after Tg bypassing of the lysosomal pathway.
You are looking at 1 - 2 of 2 items for
- Author: RT McCluskey x
- Refine by Access: All content x
M Marino, L Chiovato, S Lisi, A Pinchera, and RT McCluskey
S Lisi, A Pinchera, RT McCluskey, L Chiovato, and M Marino
OBJECTIVE: Binding of thyroglobulin (Tg) to heparin allows efficient Tg interaction with its endocytic receptor, megalin. Rat Tg (rTg) binds to heparin using an exposed carboxyl terminal region (RELPSRRLKRPLPVK, Arg2489-Lys2503) rich in positively charged residues which is, however, not entirely conserved in human Tg (hTg) (Arg2489-Glu2503, REPPARALKRSLWVE). Here, we investigated whether and how this difference affects binding of heparin. DESIGN: To compare binding of heparin to rTg and hTg. To investigate the role of the sequence 2489-2503 using a peptide-based approach. METHODS: Binding of biotin-labeled heparin to rTg, hTg and to Tg peptides was measured in solid phase assays. RESULTS: Heparin bound to rTg with moderately high affinity (K(d): 34.2 nmol/l, K(i): 37.6 nmol/l) and to hTg with lower affinity (K(d): 118 nmol/l, K(i): 480 nmol/l) and to a lower extent. Binding was dose-dependent and saturable, and was reduced by several specific competitors (Tg itself, unlabeled heparin, lactoferrin). Heparin bound to synthetic peptides corresponding to the rat (rTgP) and to the human (hTgP) Tg sequence 2489-2503. Heparin bound to rTgP to a greater extent and with greater affinity than to hTgP. An antibody against hTgP reduced binding of heparin to intact hTg by 30%, suggesting that in hTg this region is, in part, involved in heparin binding, but also that other regions account for most of the binding. Starting from the sequence of rTgP, we designed 6 synthetic 'mutant' peptides by replacing one amino acid residue of rTgP with the corresponding residue of the sequence of hTgP. Heparin bound to 5 of 6 mutant peptides to a lower extent and with lower affinity than to rTgP. CONCLUSIONS: In spite of a reduced binding ability of the sequence 2489-2503, hTg binds to heparin, in part, using alternative, as yet unidentified, binding sites. Substitution of both positive and neutral residues within the sequence 2489-2503 reduced heparin-binding, suggesting that not only charge, but also sequence and/or conformation, may account for the heparin-binding ability of this region of Tg.