Li-bo Yang, Dong-qing Jiang, Wen-bo Qi, Tie Zhang, You-lun Feng, Ling Gao and Jiajun Zhao
Whether subclinical hyperthyroidism (SCH) results in poor prognosis remains controversial. Our aim was to evaluate the association between SCH and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), cardiovascular mortality, and all-cause mortality by conducting a meta-analysis of cohort studies.
The PubMed and Embase databases were searched through November 2011 to identify studies that met pre-stated inclusion criteria. Relevant information for analysis was extracted. Either a fixed or a random effects model was used to calculate the overall combined risk estimates.
Seventeen cohort studies were included in this meta-analysis. The overall combined relative risks for individuals with SCH compared with the reference group were 1.19 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10 to 1.28) for CVD, 1.52 (95% CI: 1.08 to 2.13) for cardiovascular mortality, and 1.25 (95% CI: 1.00 to 1.55) for all-cause mortality. Subgroup analysis by sample source (community or convenience sample) showed that the significant association for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality only existed when pooling studies from convenience samples. Heterogeneity was observed when pooling studies on the association between SCH and cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Sensitivity analysis showed omission of each individual study did not significantly change the pooled effects. No evidence of publication bias was observed.
Our findings demonstrated that SCH significantly increased the risk of CVD for the general population and the risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality for the individuals with other morbidities.
Zhaoyun Zhang, Aaron M Cypess, Qing Miao, Hongying Ye, Chong Wee Liew, Qiongyue Zhang, Ruidan Xue, Shuo Zhang, Chuantao Zuo, Zhensheng Xu, Qiqun Tang, Renming Hu, Yihui Guan and Yiming Li
Previous studies have shown that active brown adipose tissue (BAT) is present in adults and may play important roles in the regulation of energy homeostasis. However, nearly every study has been carried out in patients undergoing scanning for cancer surveillance (CS), whose metabolism and BAT activity may not reflect those of healthy individuals. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and predictors of active BAT in Chinese adults, particularly in healthy individuals.
A total of 31 088 consecutive subjects aged ≥18 years who had undergone positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scanning of BAT were evaluated in this study.
We measured BAT activity via 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT in subjects who had undergone scanning for either a routine medical checkup (MC) or CS in Shanghai. Then, we investigated the predictors of active BAT, particularly in healthy individuals.
In both groups, the prevalence of BAT was higher in women than in men. Using a multivariate logistic analysis, we found age, sex, BMI, and high thyroid glucose uptake to be significant predictors of BAT activity in the MC group. Similarly, we found age, sex, and BMI to be significant predictors of BAT activity, but not thyroid high glucose uptake, in the CS group.
In Chinese adults, BAT activity inversely correlates with BMI and thyroid high glucose uptake, which reinforces the central role of brown fat in adult metabolism and provides clues to a potential means for treating the metabolic syndrome.
Ponce Cedric Fouejeu Wamba, Jie Mi, Xiao-Yuan Zhao, Mei-Xian Zhang, Yu Wen, Hong Cheng, Dong-Qing Hou and Katherine Cianflone
Childhood obesity is increasing worldwide and is increasingly associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Our aim was to examine acylation stimulating protein (ASP) and its precursor complement C3, in normal, overweight, and obese Chinese children and adolescents, and the relationships with body size, blood parameters, pubertal development, family environment, and MetS.
Children and adolescents (n=1603) from 6 to 18 years, boys (n=873) and girls (n=730), including normal weight (n=603), overweight (n=291) and obese (n=709) were assessed for body size parameters, pubertal development, blood lipids, glucose, insulin, ASP, and C3.
ASP levels were increased in overweight and obese versus normal weight (P<0.001), while C3 showed little variation. This effect of overweight/obesity remained throughout early stages when boys and girls were separated by pubertal development or age, although age and pubertal status itself had no effect. Separation based on ASP quintiles demonstrated significant associations with blood cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-Chol), glucose, insulin, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance in boys, and LDL-Chol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and glucose in girls. A positive correlation with mother's body mass index in boys and girls (P=0.002 and P=0.014 respectively) as well as birth weight (P<0.001) was noted. MetS was strongly associated with increased ASP, the presence of a single MetS factor (especially hypertension, central obesity, or hyperglycemia) was associated with increased ASP.
Changes in the plasma adipokine ASP in early obesity are associated with blood lipid and glucose modifications, family environment, and distinct MetS risk factors.
Xiaoyan Guo, Shu Zhang, Qing Zhang, Li Liu, Hongmei Wu, Huanmin Du, Hongbin Shi, Chongjin Wang, Yang Xia, Xing Liu, Chunlei Li, Shaomei Sun, Xing Wang, Ming Zhou, Guowei Huang, Qiyu Jia, Honglin Zhao, Kun Song and Kaijun Niu
It is widely known that inflammation is related to type 2 diabetes (T2D), but few studies have shown a direct relationship between the immune system and T2D using a reliable biomarker. Neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is an easy-to-analyze inflammation biomarker, but few studies have assessed the relationship between NLR and T2D. In order to evaluate how NLR is related to T2D, we designed a large-scale cross-sectional and prospective cohort study in an adult population.
Subjects and methods
Participants were recruited from the Tianjin Medical University General Hospital-Health Management Centre. Both a baseline cross-sectional (n=87 686) and a prospective (n=38 074) assessment were performed. Participants without a history of T2D were followed up for ∼6 years (with a median follow-up of 2.7 years). Adjusted logistic and Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess relationships between the quintiles of NLR and T2D (covariates: age, sex, BMI, smoking status, drinking status, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and family history of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, or diabetes).
The prevalence and incidence of T2D were 4.9% and 6.8/1000 person-years respectively. The adjusted odds ratio and hazard ratio (95% CI) of the highest NLR quintile were 1.34 (1.21, 1.49) and 1.39 (1.09, 1.78) (both P for trend <0.01) respectively as compared to the lowest quintile of NLR. Leukocyte, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts do not significantly predict the eventual development of T2D.
The present study demonstrates that NLR is related to the prevalence and incidence of T2D, and it suggests that NLR may be an efficient and accurate prognostic biomarker for T2D.
Feng Cai, Yi-Dan Zhang, Xiuli Zhao, Ya-Kun Yang, Si-Hai Ma, Cong-Xin Dai, Xiao-Hai Liu, Yong Yao, Ming Feng, Jun-Ji Wei, Bing Xing, Yong-Hui Jiao, Zhen-Qing Wei, Zhen-Ming Yin, Bo Zhang, Feng Gu and Ren-Zhi Wang
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein gene (AIP) is associated with pituitary adenoma (PA). AIP has not been sequenced in East Asian PA populations, so we performed this study in a Han Chinese cohort.
Our study included six familial PA pedigrees comprising 16 patients and 27 unaffected relatives, as well as 216 sporadic PA (SPA) patients and 100 unrelated healthy controls.
AIP sequencing was carried out on genomic DNA isolated from blood samples. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and microsatellite marker analyses on DNA from the paired tumor tissues were performed for loss of heterozygosity analysis.
We identified three common and four rare single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), one intron insertion, one novel synonymous variant, four novel missense variants, and a reported nonsense mutation in three familial isolated PA (FIPA) cases from the same family. Large genetic deletions were not observed in the germline but were seen in the sporadic tumor DNA from three missense variant carriers. The prevalence of AIP pathogenic variants in PA patients here was low (3.88%), but was higher in somatotropinoma patients (9.30%), especially in young adults (≤30 years) and pediatric (≥18 years) paients (17.24% and 25.00% respectively). All AIP variant patients suffered from macroadenomas. However, the AIP mutation rate in FIPA families was low in this cohort (16.67%, 1/6 families).
AIP gene mutation may not be frequent in FIPA or SPA from the Han Chinese population. AIP sequencing and long-term follow-up investigations should be performed for young patients with large PAs and their families with PA predisposition.
Shunming Zhang, Yeqing Gu, Liu Wang, Qing Zhang, Li Liu, Min Lu, Ge Meng, Zhanxin Yao, Hongmei Wu, Yang Xia, Xue Bao, Honglei Wang, Hongbin Shi, Shaomei Sun, Xing Wang, Ming Zhou, Qiyu Jia, Kun Song, Huiling Xiang and Kaijun Niu
Background and Aims
The protective effect of garlic against nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been reported in animal studies. However, in humans, the association between garlic consumption and NAFLD is unclear. The study sought to explore the association between habitual raw garlic intake and newly diagnosed NAFLD among Chinese adults.
We performed a study of 11,326 men and 12,780 women aged 20–90 years. Habitual food intake was assessed using a validated and standardized 100-item food frequency questionnaire. Diagnosis of NAFLD was based on the liver ultrasonography and self-reported alcohol intake. Multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of raw garlic intake with newly diagnosed NAFLD.
The prevalence of newly diagnosed NAFLD was 28.9% in men and 10.1% in women, respectively. In men, the fully adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of having NAFLD across increasing frequency of raw garlic intake were 1.00 (reference) for <1 time/week, 0.81 (0.73, 0.90) for 1–3 times/week, 0.66 (0.54, 0.80) for 4–6 times/week, and 0.71 (0.55, 0.90) for ≥7 times/week (P for trend <0.0001). The odds ratio for NAFLD associated with each 1 g of raw garlic/1000 kcal was 0.93 (0.90, 0.97) in men. In women, no significant association between raw garlic intake and NAFLD was identified. These associations between raw garlic intake and NAFLD were consistent in several sensitivity analyses.
Frequent consumption of raw garlic is inversely associated with NAFLD in Chinese men. Further investigations are needed to confirm this finding.