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Paul Franchimont, Didier Urbain-Choffray, Pierre Lambelin, Marie-Anne Fontaine, Gerard Frangin, and Jean-Yves Reginster

Abstract. This study sought to determine whether GH response to synthetic GHRH was impaired in 13 postmenopausal (55-71 years) as compared with that in 8 eugonadal women and whether IGF-I and bone metabolism were consequently depressed. Thereafter, the effects of daily iv injections of 80 μg GHRH-44 for 8 days were studied in the same postmenopausal group. In addition to significantly higher basal IGF-I and osteocalcin levels (P< 0.005) in eugonadal as compared with the postmenopausal women, the administration of one GHRH-44 injection resulted in significantly higher 120-min postinjection GH maximum peak and cumulative responses in the former group as well (P< 0.005). Highly significant correlations were observed between 17β-estradiol plasma levels and either GH maximum peak or cumulative responses to GHRH-44 when both groups were pooled together, but not when considered independently. In postmenopausal women, a correlation was found between both age and duration of menopause and GH responses. Repeated GHRH-44 injections in postmenopausal women induced a significant increase in GH response (P< 0.001) as well as in IGF-I levels from day 4 to 8. No phospho-calcium parameters were modified except for a significant rise in osteocalcin from day 2 to 8. These data indicate an age-related loss of sensitivity of somatotrope cells to GHRH-44 in postmenopausal women, partly corrected by repeated daily GHRH-44 injections. As a consequence of the GHRH-induced increase in GH secretion, IGF-I was also enhanced and may be responsible for a stimulatory effect on bone formation, as shown by the osteocalcin increase, uncoupled from bone resorption.

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David H St-Pierre, Jean-Philippe Bastard, Lise Coderre, Martin Brochu, Antony D Karelis, Marie-Éve Lavoie, Florin Malita, Jonathan Fontaine, Diane Mignault, Katherine Cianflone, Pascal Imbeault, Éric Doucet, and Rémi Rabasa-Lhoret

Objective: Recent reports have suggested that the existence of associations between hormonal dysregulation and chronic upregulation of inflammatory markers, which may cause obesity-related disturbances. Thus, we examined whether acylated ghrelin (AcylG) and total ghrelin (TotG) levels could be associated with the following inflammatory markers: C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and soluble TNF receptor 1 (sTNF-R1).

Design: Cross-sectional study consisting of 50 overweight and obese postmenopausal women.

Methods: AcylG and TotG levels were assessed at 0, 60, 160, 170, and 180 min of the euglycemic/hyperinsulinemic clamp (EHC). We evaluated insulin sensitivity, body composition, and blood lipid profiles as well as fasting concentrations of CRP, TNF-α, and sTNF-R1.

Results: In fasting conditions, sTNF-R1 was negatively correlated with AcylG (r = −0.48, P < 0.001) levels. In addition, AcylG/TotG was associated negatively with sTNF-R1 (r = −0.44, P = 0.002) and positively with TNF-α (r = 0.38, P = 0.009) values. During the EHC, TotG (at all time points) and AcylG (at 60 and 160 min) values were significantly decreased from fasting concentrations. AcylG maximal reduction and area under the curve (AUC) values were correlated to sTNF-R1 (r = −0.35, P = 0.02 and r = −0.34, P = 0.02, respectively). Meanwhile, the AcylG/TotG AUC ratio was associated negatively with sTNF-R1 (r = −0.29, P < 0.05) and positively with TNF-α (r = 0.36, P = 0.02). Following adjustments for total adiposity, sTNF-R1 remained correlated with fasting and maximal reduction AcylG values. Similarly, AcylG/TotG ratios remained significantly correlated with sTNF-R1 and TNF-α. Importantly, 23% of the variation in sTNF-R1 was independently predicted by fasting AcylG.

Conclusion: These results are the first to suggest that both fasting and EHC-induced AcylG profiles are correlated with fasting values of sTNF-R1, a component of the TNF-α system. Thus, AcylG may act, at least in part, as one mediator of chronic inflammatory activity in human obesity.

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Blandine Tramunt, Sarra Smati, Sandrine Coudol, Matthieu Wargny, Matthieu Pichelin, Béatrice Guyomarch, Abdallah Al-Salameh, Coralie Amadou, Sara Barraud, Édith Bigot, Lyse Bordier, Sophie Borot, Muriel Bourgeon, Olivier Bourron, Sybil Charriere, Nicolas Chevalier, Emmanuel Cosson, Bruno Fève, Anna Flaus-Furmaniuk, Pierre Fontaine, Amandine Galioot, Céline Gonfroy-Leymarie, Bruno Guerci, Sandrine Lablanche, Jean-Daniel Lalau, Etienne Larger, Adele Lasbleiz, Bruno Laviolle, Michel Marre, Marion Munch, Louis Potier, Gaëtan Prévost, Eric Renard, Yves Reznik, Dominique Seret-begue, Paul Sibilia, Philippe Thuillier, Bruno Vergès, Jean-Francois Gautier, Samy Hadjadj, Bertrand Cariou, Franck Mauvais-Jarvis, and Pierre Gourdy

Objective:

Male sex is a determinant of severe coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to characterize sex differences in severe outcomes in adults with diabetes hospitalized for COVID-19.

Methods:

We performed a sex-stratified analysis of clinical and biological features and outcomes (i.e. invasive mechanical ventilation [IMV], death, intensive care unit [ICU] admission and home discharge at day 7 [D7] or day 28 [D28]) in 2,380 patients with diabetes hospitalized for COVID-19 and included in the nationwide CORONADO observational study (NCT04324736).

Results:

The study population was predominantly male (63.5%). After multiple adjustments, female sex was negatively associated with the primary outcome (IMV and/or death, OR 0.66 [0.49-0.88]), death (OR 0.49 [0.30-0.79]) and ICU admission (OR 0.57 [0.43-0.77]) at D7, but only with ICU admission (OR 0.58 [0.43-0.77]) at D28. Older age and a history of microvascular complications were predictors of death at D28 in both sexes, while chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was predictive of death in women only. At admission, CRP, AST and eGFR predicted death in both sexes. Lymphocytopenia was an independent predictor of death in women only, while thrombocytopenia and elevated plasma glucose concentration were predictors of death in men only.

Conclusions:

In patients with diabetes admitted for COVID-19, female sex was associated with lower incidence of early severe outcomes, but did not influence the overall in-hospital mortality, suggesting that diabetes mitigates the female protection from COVID-19 severity. Sex-associated biological determinants may be useful to optimize COVID-19 prevention and management in women and men.