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Maria Matta, Vanina Bongard, Solange Grunenwald, Jean-Christophe Maiza, Antoine Bennet and Philippe Caron

Context

Divergence between GH and IGF1 values are often reported in treated acromegalic patients, but the mechanisms of this discrepancy have not been completely explored.

Objective

To evaluate the frequency of divergence between GH and IGF1 values and identify the role of clinical and metabolic factors in treated patients with acromegaly, according to the latest criteria of Cure published in July 2010.

Design

Retrospective study of patients' records between October 2002 and March 2008. Patients were grouped according to their mean GH and IGF1 values as ‘controlled’ (normal GH and IGF1), ‘divergent’ (high IGF1 and normal GH) and ‘uncontrolled’ (high GH and IGF1), and compared with respect to their clinical characteristics and metabolic markers.

Results

Patients (n=104) were grouped as ‘controlled’ (n=20), ‘divergent’ (n=43) and ‘uncontrolled’ (n=41). More patients in the divergent group (93%) and uncontrolled group (98%) were treated with somatostatin analogs than in the controlled group (65%; P=0.001 for the comparison of the three groups). Patients in the divergent group had higher fasting blood glucose (0.94 g/l (interquartile range: 0.83–1.17)) and systolic blood pressure (130 mmHg (120–140) compared with the controlled group (0.84 g/l (0.80–0.92); P=0.017) and 120 mmHg (interquartile range: 110–130; P=0.029). In patients with divergent IGF1/GH levels, fasting glucose and GH were both strongly associated with IGF1.

Conclusion

Totally 41% of treated acromegalic patients had a high IGF1 and normal GH level. In these divergent patients treated with somatostatin analogs, these clinical and metabolic parameters might either play a causal role or be a marker for disease activity.

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Philippe J Caron, Antoine P Bennet, Monique M Plantavid and Jean-Pierre Louvet

Caron PJ, Bennet AP, Plantavid MM, Louvet J-P. Luteinizing hormone secretory pattern before and after removal of Leydig cell tumor of the testis. Eur J Endocrinol 1994;131:156–9. ISSN 0804–4643

We studied the luteinizing hormone (LH) secretory pattern in three patients, aged 30, 23 and 43 years, with gynecomastia due to Leydig cell tumor of the testis, before and 6 months after unilateral orchidectomy. The results were compared to those of 11 normal fertile controls aged 20–35 years. Blood sampling was done at 20-min intervals from 22.00 h to 10.00 h. The LH data were analyzed with the Cluster analysis algorithm with "optimal parameters for LH male data" to determine the pulse interval and pulse amplitude. The Expfit program was applied to LH pulses to calculate the apparent half-life of immunoreactive LH. Before surgery, when compared to controls, the patients had a low to normal testosterone/estradiol ratio (0.053, 0.110, 0.046 vs 0.148 ± 0.038) and mean LH levels (1.96, 3.7, 2.55 vs 4.0 ± 1.9 IU/l), decreased pulse amplitude (2.65, 3.01, 2.21 vs 3.31 ± 1.41 IU/l) and reduced apparent half-life of LH (74, 69, 78 vs 97 ± 16 min). After removal of the Leydig cell tumor, the testosterone/estradiol ratio returned to the normal range (0.141, 0.177, 0.093) while an increase in mean LH levels (5.75, 7.90, 4.88 IU/l), LH pulse amplitude (3.07, 6.05, 2.86 IU/l) and apparent half-life of LH (138, 106, 104 min) was observed in all three patients. Our data indicate that endogenous hyperestrogenism in patients with Leydig cell tumor of the testis results in an inhibition of LH secretion, and suggests that such inhibition could result from a reduction in pulse amplitude and apparent half-life.

Philippe Caron, Service d'Endocrinologie et Maladies métaboliques, CHU Rangueil, 1 Avenue J Poulhes, 31054 Toulouse Cedex, France

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Jacques Allouche, Antoine Bennet, Pierre Barbe, Monique Plantavid, Philippe Caron and Jean-Pierre Louvet

Abstract.

LH nocturnal pulsatility and bioactivity to immunoreactivity (B/I) ratio were determined in 16 patients with anorexia nervosa-related hypothalamic amenorrhea and low sex steroid levels, and in 12 normal women in the midfollicular phase. The patients were subdivided into 2 groups: IA (N=7) without, and IB (N=9) with documented recent weight gain. Blood samples were taken from each subject at 10-min intervals from 00.00 to 06.00 h. Immunoreactive LH data were analysed with cluster analysis algorithm. A pool of aliquots from all the samples was used to evaluate bioactive LH, immunoreactive LH and LH B/I ratio in each subject. LH pulse frequency was lower in Group IA than in controls, whereas it did not differ significantly between Group IB and controls. LH pulse amplitude was lower in Group IA, and higher in Group IB than in controls. LH B/I ratio was below the control range in 3/16 patients. In conclusion, persistent hypothalamic amenorrhea does not require a permanent inhibition of the GnRH pulse generator; transient inhibition of pulsatility and qualitative abnormalities of gonadotropins could be involved in the mechanism, at least in some patients.

Free access

Alexandre Buffet, Delphine Vezzosi, Jean Christophe Maiza, Solange Grunenwald, Antoine Bennet and Philippe Caron

Objective

The objective of the present study was to determine whether a plasma β-hydroxybutyrate (BOHB) level >2700 μmol/l during the 72-h fasting test is sufficient to rule out the diagnosis of endogenous hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia (EHH).

Research design and methods

We retrospectively studied BOHB levels in 39 patients with EHH who had undergone a 72-h fasting test to make the diagnosis of EHH, and we compared EHH patients with BOHB levels >2700 μmol/l (group 1), EHH patients with BOHB levels <2700 μmol/l (group 2) and 59 controls (median glycaemia: 3.2 mmol/l and median BOHB: 6095 μmol/l).

Results

During a 72-h fasting test, nine patients (group 1) had BOHB levels >2700 μmol/l (median 6140 and range 2957–7824) and 30 patients (group 2) had BOHB levels <2700 μmol/l (median 542 and range 0–2607). In group 1, four patients had undergone partial pancreatectomy previously and were evaluated for the recurrence of hypoglycaemia, whereas none of the group 2 patients had been operated. The duration of the fasting test was longer in group 1 than in group 2 (P<0.0001), and at the end of the fasting test, plasma glucose concentrations were not significantly different (P=0.0617), but insulin (P=0.004), C-peptide (P=0.0015) and proinsulin (P=0.0038) levels were significantly lower in group 1 patients than in group 2 patients, suggesting lower insulin secretion and/or impaired glycaemic counter-regulation.

Conclusion

During a fasting test, a BOHB level >2700 μmol/l is observed in some EHH patients, suggesting that BOHB levels cannot rule out the recurrence of EHH, in particular, after partial pancreatectomy.

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Pascal Pigny, Catherine Cardot-Bauters, Christine Do Cao, Marie Christine Vantyghem, Bruno Carnaille, François Pattou, Philippe Caron, Jean-Louis Wemeau and Nicole Porchet

Background

According to previous studies, around 15% of patients with an apparently sporadic pheochromocytoma and a negative family history had a hereditary disease. This high frequency together with the financial support provided to reference laboratories of molecular genetics by the French government led to a nearly systematic screening in each patient with a pheochromocytoma.

Objective

To check the efficiency of systematic genetic screening in patients with apparently sporadic pheochromocytoma, by analysing the 6 years experience of a multidisciplinary team in this field.

Methods

One hundred patients with a pheochromocytoma-only phenotype and no family history were included. Patients with extra-adrenal tumours were excluded. Prevalence of hereditary forms was determined and analyzed according to age at onset, sex. Cost of the genetic analysis was calculated.

Results

A germline mutation in one of the five susceptibility genes (VHL, RET, SDHD, SDHC, SDHB) was identified in eight patients (8%) with an age of onset between 13 and 57 years. Among them, six had a bilateral pheochromocytoma and only two had a unilateral tumour. If the guidelines for genetic screening were age of onset less than 50 or bilateral pheochromocytoma, no patients with a hereditary tumour would be missed and a 24% cost reduction would be achieved.

Conclusions

According to these data, a genetic predisposition test for hereditary pheochromocytoma seems not recommended in patients with a unilateral adrenal tumour diagnosed after 50 in the absence of familial, clinical, biological or imaging features for a familial disease.

Free access

Michèle d'Herbomez, Philippe Caron, Catherine Bauters, Christine Do Cao, Jean-Louis Schlienger, Rémy Sapin, Line Baldet, Bruno Carnaille, Jean-Louis Wémeau and the French Group GTE (Groupe des Tumeurs Endocrines)

Objective

The objective of this study was to re-evaluate the adult C T reference values determined by five different immunoassays and by introducing criteria for selecting control subjects.

Design

A prospective multicenter study.

Patients

Three hundred and seventy-five clinically euthyroid subjects.

Methods

We used five different C T immunoassays. Sera were assayed for the concentration of TSH, gastrin, procalcitonin, urea, calcium, and anti-thyroperoxidase antibodies.

Results

Screening for the various potential causes of hypercalcitoninemia led to the exclusion of 23% of the sera. Our reference value analysis dealt with 287 subjects (142 men and 145 women). The proportion of samples in which no C T was detected varied from 56% (for assay D) to 88% (for assay C). We observed significant correlations (whose magnitude depended on the assay used) between C T levels and age or body mass index (BMI) (primarily in men). The distribution of C T levels showed that 4.7, 9.8, 2.5, 6.5, and 8.0% of the values were over 10 pg/ml respectively. These values corresponded essentially to samples from 11 male subjects (median age: 55 years), most of whom were smokers. The highest C T values were around twice as high in men than women, and were higher in smokers than non-smokers.

Conclusion

In clinical practice (and after having excluded the usual causes of raised C T levels), the interpretation of C T assay results must take into account i) the method used; ii) the patient's gender, age, and weight; and iii) the potential influence of cigarette smoking.

Free access

Delphine Vezzosi, Catherine Cardot-Bauters, Nicolas Bouscaren, Maëlle Lebras, Mireille Bertholon-Grégoire, Patricia Niccoli, Nathalie Levy-Bohbot, Lionel Groussin, Philippe Bouchard, Antoine Tabarin, Philippe Chanson, Pierre Lecomte, Isabelle Guilhem, Nicolas Carrere, Eric Mirallié, François Pattou, Jean Louis Peix, Diane Goere, Françoise Borson-Chazot, Philippe Caron, Vanina Bongard, Bruno Carnaille, Pierre Goudet and Eric Baudin

Objective

Management of insulinomas in the context of MEN1 remains poorly studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate long-term results of various surgical approaches in a large cohort of insulinoma–MEN1 patients.

Design and methods

Consecutive insulinoma–MEN1 patients operated on for a nonmetastatic insulinoma between 1957 and 2010 were retrospectively selected from the MEN1 database of the French Endocrine Tumor Group. The type of surgery was categorized as distal pancreatectomy (DP), total pancreatectomy/cephalic duodenopancreatectomy (TP/CDP), or enucleation (E). Primary endpoint was time until recurrence of hypoglycemia after initial surgery. Secondary endpoints were post-operative complications.

Results

The study included 73 patients (median age=28 years). Surgical procedures were DP (n=46), TP/CDP (n=9), or E (n=18). After a median post-operative follow-up of 9.0 years (inter-quartile range (IQR): 2.5–16.5 years), 60/73 patients (82.2%) remained hypoglycemia free. E and TP/CDP were associated with a higher risk of recurrent hypoglycemia episodes (unadjusted hazard ratio: 6.18 ((95% CI: 1.54–24.8); P=0.010) for E vs DP and 9.51 ((95% CI: 1.85–48.8); P=0.007) for TP/CDP vs DP. After adjustment for International Union against Cancer pTNM classification, enucleation remained significantly associated with a higher probability of recurrence. Long-term complications had occurred in 20 (43.5%) patients with DP, five (55.6%) with TP/CDP, but in none of the patients who have undergone E (P=0.002).

Conclusion

In the French Endocrine database, DP is associated with a lower risk for recurrent hypoglycemia episodes. Due to lower morbidity, E alone might be considered as an alternative.

Free access

Hélène Lasolle, Christine Cortet, Fréderic Castinetti, Lucie Cloix, Philippe Caron, Brigitte Delemer, Rachel Desailloud, Christel Jublanc, Christine Lebrun-Frenay, Jean-Louis Sadoul, Luc Taillandier, Marie Batisse-Lignier, Fabrice Bonnet, Nathalie Bourcigaux, Damien Bresson, Olivier Chabre, Philippe Chanson, Cyril Garcia, Magalie Haissaguerre, Yves Reznik, Sophie Borot, Chiara Villa, Alexandre Vasiljevic, Stephan Gaillard, Emmanuel Jouanneau, Guillaume Assié and Gérald Raverot

Objectives

Only few retrospective studies have reported an efficacy rate of temozolomide (TMZ) in pituitary tumors (PT), all around 50%. However, the long-term survival of treated patients is rarely evaluated. We therefore aimed to describe the use of TMZ on PT in clinical practice and evaluate the long-term survival.

Design

Multicenter retrospective study by members of the French Society of Endocrinology.

Methods

Forty-three patients (14 women) treated with TMZ between 2006 and 2016 were included. Most tumors were corticotroph (n = 23) or lactotroph (n = 13), and 14 were carcinomas. Clinical/pathological characteristics of PT, as well as data from treatment evaluation and from the last follow-up were recorded. A partial response was considered as a decrease in the maximal tumor diameter by more than 30% and/or in the hormonal rate by more than 50% at the end of treatment.

Results

The median treatment duration was 6.5 cycles (range 2–24), using a standard regimen for most and combined radiotherapy for six. Twenty-two patients (51.2%) were considered as responders. Silent tumor at diagnosis was associated with a poor response. The median follow-up after the end of treatment was 16 months (0–72). Overall survival was significantly higher among responders (P = 0.002); however, ten patients relapsed 5 months (0–57) after the end of TMZ treatment, five in whom TMZ was reinitiated without success.

Discussion

Patients in our series showed a 51.2% response rate to TMZ, with an improved survival among responders despite frequent relapses. Our study highlights the high variability and lack of standardization of treatment protocols.

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Thomas Cuny, Morgane Pertuit, Mona Sahnoun-Fathallah, Adrian Daly, Gianluca Occhi, Marie Françoise Odou, Antoine Tabarin, Marie Laure Nunes, Brigitte Delemer, Vincent Rohmer, Rachel Desailloud, Véronique Kerlan, Olivier Chabre, Jean-Louis Sadoul, Muriel Cogne, Philippe Caron, Christine Cortet-Rudelli, Anne Lienhardt, Isabelle Raingeard, Anne-Marie Guedj, Thierry Brue, Albert Beckers, Georges Weryha, Alain Enjalbert and Anne Barlier

Context

Germline mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein gene (AIP) have been identified in young patients (age ≤30 years old) with sporadic pituitary macroadenomas. Otherwise, there are few data concerning the prevalence of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) mutations in such a population.

Objective

We assessed the prevalence of both AIP and MEN1 genetic abnormalities (mutations and large gene deletions) in young patients (age ≤30 years old) diagnosed with sporadic and isolated macroadenoma, without hypercalcemia and/or MEN1-associated lesions.

Design

The entire coding sequences of AIP and MEN1 were screened for mutations. In cases of negative sequencing screening, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification was performed for the detection of large genetic deletions.

Patients and settings

One hundred and seventy-four patients from endocrinology departments of 15 French University Hospital Centers were eligible for this study.

Results

Twenty-one out of 174 (12%) patients had AIP (n=15, 8.6%) or MEN1 (n=6, 3.4%) mutations. In pediatric patients (age ≤18 years old), AIP/MEN1 mutation frequency reached nearly 22% (n=10/46). AIPmut and MEN1mut were identified in 8/79 (10.1%) and 1/79 (1.2%) somatotropinoma patients respectively; they each accounted for 4/74 (5.4%) prolactinoma (PRL) patients with mutations. Half of those patients (n=3/6) with gigantism displayed mutations in AIP. Interestingly, 4/12 (33%) patients with non-secreting adenomas bore either AIP or MEN1 mutations, whereas none of the eight corticotroph adenomas or the single thyrotropinoma case had mutations. No large gene deletions were observed in sequencing-negative patients.

Conclusion

Mutations in MEN1 can be of significance in young patients with sporadic isolated pituitary macroadenomas, particularly PRL, and together with AIP, we suggest genetic analysis of MEN1 in such a population.

Free access

Ann McCormack, Olaf M Dekkers, Stephan Petersenn, Vera Popovic, Jacqueline Trouillas, Gerald Raverot, Pia Burman and ESE survey collaborators

Objective

To collect outcome data in a large cohort of patients with aggressive pituitary tumours (APT)/carcinomas (PC) and specifically report effects of temozolomide (TMZ) treatment.

Design

Electronic survey to ESE members Dec 2015–Nov 2016.

Results

Reports on 166 patients (40 PC, 125 APT, 1 unclassified) were obtained. Median age at diagnosis was 43 (range 4–79) years. 69% of the tumours were clinically functioning, and the most frequent immunohistochemical subtype were corticotroph tumours (45%). Ki-67 index did not distinguish APT from PC, median 7% and 10% respectively. TMZ was first-line chemotherapy in 157 patients. At the end of the treatment (median 9 cycles), radiological evaluation showed complete response (CR) in 6%, partial response (PR) in 31%, stable disease (SD) in 33% and progressive disease in 30%. Response was more frequent in patients receiving concomitant radiotherapy and TMZ. CR was seen only in patients with low MGMT expression. Clinically functioning tumours were more likely to respond than non-functioning tumours, independent of MGMT status. Of patients with CR, PR and SD, 25, 40 and 48% respectively progressed after a median of 12-month follow-up. Other oncological drugs given as primary treatment and to TMZ failures resulted in PR in 20%.

Conclusion

This survey confirms that TMZ is established as first-line chemotherapeutic treatment of APT/PC. Clinically functioning tumours, low MGMT and concurrent radiotherapy were associated with a better response. The limited long-term effect of TMZ and the poor efficacy of other drugs highlight the need to identify additional effective therapies.