Ng'weina F. Magitta, Mikuláš Pura, Anette S Bøe Wolff, Peter Vanuga, Anthony Meager, Per M Knappskog and Eystein S Husebye
Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type I (APS I) is a monogenic disease affecting endocrine glands and other organs due to mutations of the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene. There is a wide variability in clinical phenotypes in patients with APS I, which makes the diagnosis a challenge.
To screen for APS I among Slovakian patients with sporadic Addison's disease and clinical features that raised the suspicion of APS I.
All 14 exons and exon–intron boundaries of the AIRE gene were sequenced. In addition, autoantibodies specific for Addison's disease and polyendocrine syndromes were assayed.
Using clinical criteria we identified four patients with APS I in three families. Two patients had a novel missense mutation in exon 2 (c.274C>T, p.R92W) and either the Finnish major mutation (c.769C>T) or the common 13 bp deletion (c.967–979del13bp). APS I was diagnosed in a brother of the latter after his death due to an adrenal crisis. A fourth patient had primary adrenal failure and hypoparathyroidism without AIRE mutations or APS-I specific autoantibodies.
Four patients with APS I were found in a Slovakian cohort of Addison patients, although the lack of detectable AIRE mutations and APS I-specific autoantibodies raises uncertainty regarding the pathogenesis in one of the patients. This study demonstrates the merits of screening patients with phenotypic features or autoantibody findings that could indicate APS I, even in adult patients. It is necessary to identify APS I patients in order to provide appropriate treatment and follow-up of the various components of APS I.
Martin Kužma, Peter Vaňuga, Ivana Ságová, Dušan Pávai, Peter Jackuliak, Zdenko Killinger, Neil C Binkley, Renaud Winzenrieth, Harry K Genant and Juraj Payer
Impaired bone microarchitecture is involved in vertebral fracture (VF) development among acromegaly patients.
Aim of the study
Comparison of DXA-derived bone parameters, areal BMD (aBMD), trabecular bone score (TBS) and 3D-SHAPER parameters in acromegaly patients with healthy controls.
This cross-sectional study evaluated acromegaly patients and a control group of healthy subjects. In all subjects, a single measurement of pituitary axis hormone levels, bone turnover markers, aBMD, (total hip (TH) and lumbar spine (LS)), TBS and 3D-SHAPER of the proximal femur region was performed. All subjects underwent DXA assessment of VF using the semiquantitative approach.
One hundred six patients with acromegaly (mean age 56.6 years, BMI 30.2 kg/m2) and 104 control subjects (mean age 54.06 years, 28.4 BMI kg/m2) were included. After adjustment for weight, LS aBMD, TBS and TH trabecular volumetric BMD (vBMD) remained lower (P = 0.0048, <0.0001 and <0.0001, respectively) while cortical thickness (Cth) at TH and neck remained thicker (P = 0.006) in acromegaly patients compared with controls. The best multivariate model (model 1) discriminating patients with and without acromegaly included TBS, TH trabecular vBMD and TH Cth parameters (all P < 0.05). Twenty-two VFs (13 acromegaly subjects) were recognized. In these subjects after adjustment for age, FN aBMD, TH cortical sBMD and TH cortical vBMD remained significantly associated with the prevalent VF (OR = 2.69 (1.07–6.78), 2.84 (1.24–6.51) and 2.38 (1.11–5.10) for neck aBMD, TH cortical sBMD and TH cortical vBMD respectively)). The AUCs were similar for each parameter in this model.
Acromegaly patients, regardless of VF presence, have lower trabecular bone quantitative parameters, but those with VFs had decreased cortical density.
Christian J Strasburger, Peter Vanuga, Juraj Payer, Marija Pfeifer, Vera Popovic, László Bajnok, Miklós Góth, Veˇra Olšovská, L‘udmila Trejbalová, Janos Vadasz, Eyal Fima, Ronit Koren, Leanne Amitzi, Martin Bidlingmaier, Oren Hershkovitz, Gili Hart and Beverly M K Biller
Growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy currently requires daily injections, which may cause distress and low compliance. C-terminal peptide (CTP)-modified growth hormone (MOD-4023) is being developed as a once-weekly dosing regimen in patients with GH deficiency (GHD). This study’s objective is to evaluate the safety, pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD) and efficacy of MOD-4023 administered once-weekly in GHD adults.
54 adults with GHD currently treated with daily GH were normalized and randomized into 4 weekly dosing cohorts of MOD-4023 at 18.5%, 37%, 55.5% or 123.4% of individual cumulative weekly molar hGH dose. The study included 2 stages: Stage A assessed the effectiveness and PK/PD profiles of the 4 dosing regimens of MOD-4023. Stage B was an extension period of once-weekly MOD-4023 administration (61.7% molar hGH content) to collect further safety data and confirm the results from Stage A.
Dose-dependent response was observed for both PK and PD data of weekly MOD-4023 treatment. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) SDS levels were maintained within normal range. The 18.5% cohort was discontinued due to low efficacy. MOD-4023 was well tolerated and exhibited favorable safety profile in all dose cohorts. The reported adverse events were consistent with known GH-related side effects.
Once-weekly MOD-4023 administration in GHD adults was found to be clinically effective while maintaining a favorable safety profile and may obviate the need for daily injections. Weekly GH injections may improve compliance and overall outcome. The promising results achieved in this Phase 2 study led to a pivotal Phase 3 trial, which is currently ongoing.