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Patrick M Sluss, Kan-ei Lee, John H Mattox, Patricia C Smith, Margaret C Graham and Ann B Partridge

Sluss PM, Lee K, Mattox JH, Smith PC, Graham MC, Partridge AB. Estradiol and progesterone production by cultured granulosa cells cryopreserved from in vitro fertilization patients. Eur J Endocrinol 1994;130:259–64. ISSN 0804–4643

Gonadotropin-stimulated steroidogenesis was studied in cultured human granulosa-lutein cells obtained from patients undergoing procedures for in vitro fertilization. The impact of cryopreservation on cell function in vitro was studied. Granulosa cells obtained from in vitro fertilization patients were cultured in serum-supplemented medium or cryopreserved at −135°C for 2–22 months. Fresh (unfrozen) cells (105) produced estradiol at a rate of 1320 pmol/l (over 72 h) and progesterone at about 2500 nmol/l. Estradiol production by either fresh or cryopreserved granulosa cells in culture was unaffected by physiological concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone (7IU/l). Adding testosterone (10−7 mol/l) to the medium increased estradiol secretion approximately sixfold. In contrast, progesterone production was not affected by follicle-stimulating hormone or testosterone. No significant differences were observed in cultures of cryopreserved granulosa cells compared to cultures of unfrozen cells with respect to estradiol secretion, the effects of follicle-stimulating hormone or testosterone on estradiol secretion, or progesterone production. Progesterone production by fresh and cryopreserved cells was stimulated by human chorionic gonadotropin. These data indicate that cryopreservation offers the potential to facilitate prospective studies utilizing large numbers of human granulosa-lutein cells in culture.

Patrick M Sluss, Reproductive Endocrine Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital East, 149 13th Street, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA

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Elizabeth A Lawson, Kathryn E Ackerman, Nara Mendes Estella, Gabriela Guereca, Lisa Pierce, Patrick M Sluss, Mary L Bouxsein, Anne Klibanski and Madhusmita Misra

Objective

Preclinical data indicate that oxytocin, a hormone produced in the hypothalamus and secreted into the peripheral circulation, is anabolic to bone. Oxytocin knockout mice have severe osteoporosis, and administration of oxytocin improves bone microarchitecture in these mice. Data suggest that exercise may modify oxytocin secretion, but this has not been studied in athletes in relation to bone. We therefore investigated oxytocin secretion and its association with bone microarchitecture and strength in young female athletes.

Design

Cross-sectional study of 45 females, 14–21 years (15 amenorrheic athletes (AA), 15 eumenorrheic athletes (EA), and 15 nonathletes (NA)), of comparable bone age and BMI.

Methods

We used high-resolution peripheral quantitative CT to assess bone microarchitecture and finite element analysis to estimate bone strength at the weight-bearing distal tibia and non-weight-bearing ultradistal radius. Serum samples were obtained every 60 min, 2300–0700 h, and pooled for an integrated measure of nocturnal oxytocin secretion. Midnight and 0700 h samples were used to assess diurnal variation of oxytocin.

Results

Nocturnal oxytocin levels were lower in AA and EA than in NA. After controlling for estradiol, the difference in nocturnal oxytocin between AA and NA remained significant. Midnight and 0700 h oxytocin levels did not differ between groups. At the tibia and radius, AA had impaired microarchitecture compared with NA. In AA, nocturnal oxytocin correlated strongly with trabecular and cortical microarchitecture, particularly at the non-weight-bearing radius. In regression models that include known predictors of microarchitecture in AA, oxytocin accounted for a substantial portion of the variability in microarchitectural and strength parameters.

Conclusions

Nocturnal oxytocin secretion is low in AA compared with NA and associated with site-dependent microarchitectural parameters. Oxytocin may contribute to hypoestrogenemic bone loss in AA.

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Masanobu Fujimoto, Jane C Khoury, Philip R Khoury, Bhanu Kalra, Ajay Kumar, Patrick Sluss, Claus Oxvig, Vivian Hwa and Andrew Dauber

Objective

Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A2 (PAPP-A2) is a metalloproteinase that cleaves IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-5. Human mutations in PAPPA2 result in short stature with a low percentage of free IGF-I. Little is known about PAPP-A2 levels and the regulation of free IGF-I throughout childhood. We examined PAPP-A2 and intact IGFBP-3 levels in childhood and explored associations between PAPP-A2, free and total IGF-I, and total and intact IGFBP-3 and their relationship to the percentage of free to total IGF-I and anthropometric factors.

Design

Cross-sectional study at a single center.

Methods

PAPP-A2, free IGF-I, and intact IGFBP-3 levels were measured in childhood (3–18 years old) and an evaluation of the relationship between these proteins and anthropometric factors.

Results

In 838 children, PAPP-A2 consistently decreased throughout childhood. In contrast, free IGF-I increased. A pubertal peak in free IGF-I was present in females but was less evident in males. Intact and total IGFBP-3 increased throughout childhood; however, intact IGFBP-3 had a more marked rise than total IGFBP-3. Percent free IGF-I decreased with no distinct pubertal peak. PAPP-A2 levels positively correlated with the percent free IGF-I (Male, Female; r = 0.18, 0.38; P < 0.001) and negatively with intact IGFBP-3 (Male, Female; r = −0.58, −0.65; P < 0.0001).

Conclusions

This is the first study to describe serum PAPP-A2 and intact IGFBP-3 in children between 3 and 18 years of age. Our correlative findings suggest that PAPP-A2 is an important regulator of the percent free IGF-I which can be a marker of perturbations in the GH/IGF-I axis.