Growth patterns of patients with Noonan syndrome (NS) were established before the involved genes were identified.
The goal of this study was to compare growth parameters according to genotype in patients with NS.
Subjects and methods
The study population included 420 patients (176 females and 244 males) harboring mutations in the PTPN11, SOS1, RAF1, or KRAS genes. NS-associated PTPN11 mutations (NS-PTPN11) and NS with multiple lentigines-associated PTPN11 mutations (NSML-PTPN11) were distinguished. Birth measures and height and body mass index (BMI) measures at 2, 5, 10 years, and adulthood were compared with the general population and between genotypes.
Patients with NS were shorter at birth (mean birth length standard deviation score (SDS): –1.0 ± 1.4; P < 0.001) and throughout childhood than the healthy population, with height SDS being –2.1 ± 1.3 at 2 years, and –2.1 ± 1.2 at 5 and 10 years and adulthood (P < 0.001). At birth, patients with NS-PTPN11 were significantly shorter and thinner than patients with NSML-PTPN11, SOS1, or KRAS. Growth retardation was significantly less severe and less frequent at 2 years in patients with NSML-PTPN11 and SOS1 than in patients with NS-PTPN11 (P < 0.001 and P = 0.002 respectively). Patients with NS had lower BMI at 10 years (P < 0.001). No difference between genotypes was demonstrated.
Determining the growth patterns of patients with NS according to genotype should better inform clinicians about the natural course of growth in NS so that they can optimize the follow-up and management of these patients.