Percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) has been proposed for the management of small hepatocellular carcinomas as an alternative modality of treatment devoid of the complications related to surgery in this kind of patient (1–4). Likewise, PEI has been used for liver and peritoneal metastases of abdominal tumors (1), offering the possibility to attack lesions unlikely to be controlled by surgery and/or chemotherapy. The mechanism of action of ethanol appears to be related to cellular dehydration followed by coagulative necrosis and vascular thrombosis and occlusion.
On the other hand, the use of PEI has also been proposed for non-malignant nodular lesions, such as parathyroid adenomas causing either primary (5, 6) or secondary (7) hyperparathyroidism. This modality of treatment appears to be particularly suitable for patients with chronic renal failure in whom the surgical risk of parathyroidectomy is high.
In 1990, Livraghi et al. (8) suggested that autonomous single thyroid nodules can be