Paolo Cavarzere, Dinane Samara-Boustani, Isabelle Flechtner, Michèle Dechaux, Caroline Elie, Véronique Tardy, Yves Morel and Michel Polak
Neonatal screening for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is characterized by a high false-positive rate, mainly among preterm and low birth weight infants. The aims of this study were to describe a subgroup of infants with transient serum hyper-17-hydroxyprogesteronemia (hyper-17-OHPemia) and to compare them with false positive and affected by 21-hydroxylase deficiency newborns.
We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of all newborns positive at CAH neonatal screening, who were referred to our hospital to confirm the diagnosis from 2002 to 2006. They were submitted to clinical investigations and blood tests to evaluate 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), renin, and electrolyte levels. CAH-unaffected newborns with increased serum 17-OHP were submitted to strict follow-up monitoring, which included an ACTH-stimulating test and genetic analysis of the 21-hydroxylase gene, until serum 17-OHP decreased.
Thirty-seven newborns with gestational ages ranging from 33 to 40 weeks were studied. Eight infants (three male and five female) were affected by CAH (serum 17-OHP: 277.5 (210–921) nmol/l), 14 (ten male and four female) were false positives (17-OHP: 3.75 (0.3–8.4) nmol/l), and 15 (ten male and five female) showed a serum hyper-17-OHPemia (17-OHP: 15.9 (9.9–33) nmol/l). No mutations of the 21-hydroxylase gene were found in infants with hyper-17-OHPemia and their serum 17-OHP levels were normalized by the third month of life.
We identified a population of infants with transient serum hyper-17-OHPemia, and no clinical signs of disease or 21-hydroxylase gene mutations. No further investigations are necessary after birth in these newborns if 17-OHP levels decrease, other confirmatory tests such as ACTH-stimulation test or genotyping analysis are necessary only if symptoms appear.
Paolo Cavarzere, Marta Camilot, Florina Ion Popa, Silvana Lauriola, Francesca Teofoli, Rossella Gaudino, Monica Vincenzi and Franco Antoniazzi
To evaluate the incidence of congenital hypothyroidism (CH) with delayed TSH elevation among low-birth-weight (LBW) newborns in North-Eastern Italy and to verify if they need a second or third screening.
Analysis of clinical and biochemical data of newborns affected by CH with delayed TSH elevation identified by neonatal screening.
Data of all newborns with birth weight (BW) <2500 g and evidence of delayed TSH elevation at newborn screening were collected between 2011 and 2014. Confirmatory tests were based on serum TSH and FT4 levels. All their clinical signs at diagnosis were reported.
57.5% of LBW newborns with delayed TSH increase at neonatal screening presented a CH with delayed TSH elevation and began a treatment with l-thyroxine. The incidence of this condition in North-Eastern Italy is therefore 1:908. The remaining infants presented a subclinical hypothyroidism (21.25%) or a complete normal serum thyroid function (21.25%). These data could be drawn only from a retesting strategy of neonatal screening.
Our report describes the incidence of CH with delayed TSH rise in North-Eastern Italy and differentiates this clinical condition from other thyroid dysfunctions of preterm or LBW newborns. The second-screening strategy for CH in neonates with BW < 2500 g proved useful in detecting newborns who otherwise would not be identified at the first screening.
Paolo Cavarzere, Rossella Gaudino, Marco Sandri, Diego Alberto Ramaroli, Angelo Pietrobelli, Marco Zaffanello, Alessandra Guzzo, Gian Luca Salvagno, Giorgio Piacentini and Franco Antoniazzi
To report the frequency and characteristics of growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD) in adolescents who had normalized GH secretion at mid-puberty and to identify possible factors predictive for GH sufficiency at puberty.
Clinical analysis of children affected by GHD at five time points: diagnosis; first year of therapy; intermediate stage of puberty; retesting and end of growth phase.
The study population was 80 children with idiopathic GHD and treated with GH for at least 2 years. Treatment was discontinued at the intermediate stage of puberty. Retesting with an arginine test was performed 12 weeks later. If GH peak at retesting was ≥8 μg/L, the therapy was definitively discontinued, otherwise it was restarted and continued until achievement of near-final height.
GH therapy was discontinued in 44 children (55%), and restarted in 36 (45%). No evidence of differences in definitive height and in the delta height between the genetic target and the definitive height was found between the two groups. The only predictive factor for GHD at mid-puberty was the insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) level at 1 year of GH treatment.
GH secretion should be retested at mid-puberty. Retesting at puberty may reduce potential side effects and minimize costs, without impairing growth potential and final height.
Giuseppa Patti, Saverio Scianguetta, Domenico Roberti, Alberto Di Mascio, Antonio Balsamo, Milena Brugnara, Marco Cappa, Maddalena Casale, Paolo Cavarzere, Sarah Cipriani, Sabrina Corbetta, Rossella Gaudino, Lorenzo Iughetti, Lucia Martini, Flavia Napoli, Alessandro Peri, Maria Carolina Salerno, Roberto Salerno, Elena Passeri, Mohamad Maghnie, Silverio Perrotta and Natascia Di Iorgi
Autosomal dominant neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (adNDI) is caused by arginine vasopressin (AVP) deficiency resulting from mutations in the AVP-NPII gene encoding the AVP preprohormone.
To describe the clinical and molecular features of Italian unrelated families with central diabetes insipidus.
Patients and methods
We analyzed AVP-NPII gene in 13 families in whom diabetes insipidus appeared to be segregating.
Twenty-two patients were found to carry a pathogenic AVP-NPII gene mutation. Two novel c.173 G>C (p.Cys58Ser) and c.215 C>A (p.Ala72Glu) missense mutations and additional eight different mutations previously described were identified; nine were missense and one non-sense mutation. Most mutations (eight out of ten) occurred in the region encoding for the NPII moiety; two mutations were detected in exon 1. No mutations were found in exon 3. Median age of onset was 32.5 months with a variability within the same mutation (3 to 360 months). No clear genotype–phenotype correlation has been observed, except for the c.55 G>A (p.Ala19Thr) mutation, which led to a later onset of disease (median age 120 months). Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed the absence of posterior pituitary hyperintensity in 8 out of 15 subjects, hypointense signal in 4 and normal signal in 2. Follow-up MRI showed the disappearance of the posterior pituitary hyperintensity after 6 years in one case.
adNDI is a progressive disease with a variable age of onset. Molecular diagnosis and counseling should be provided to avoid unnecessary investigations and to ensure an early and adequate treatment.
Marco Bonomi, Valeria Vezzoli, Csilla Krausz, Fabiana Guizzardi, Silvia Vezzani, Manuela Simoni, Ivan Bassi, Paolo Duminuco, Natascia Di Iorgi, Claudia Giavoli, Alessandro Pizzocaro, Gianni Russo, Mirella Moro, Letizia Fatti, Alberto Ferlin, Laura Mazzanti, Maria Chiara Zatelli, Salvo Cannavò, Andrea M Isidori, Angela Ida Pincelli, Flavia Prodam, Antonio Mancini, Paolo Limone, Maria Laura Tanda, Rossella Gaudino, Mariacarolina Salerno, Pregnolato Francesca, Mohamad Maghnie, Mario Maggi, Luca Persani and Italian Network on Central Hypogonadism
Isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) is a rare disorder with pubertal delay, normal (normoosmic-IHH, nIHH) or defective sense of smell (Kallmann syndrome, KS). Other reproductive and non-reproductive anomalies might be present although information on their frequency are scanty, particularly according to the age of presentation.
Observational cohort study carried out between January 2008 and June 2016 within a national network of academic or general hospitals.
We performed a detailed phenotyping of 503 IHH patients with: (1) manifestations of hypogonadism with low sex steroid hormone and low/normal gonadotropins; (2) absence of expansive hypothalamic/pituitary lesions or multiple pituitary hormone defects. Cohort was divided on IHH onset (PPO, pre-pubertal onset or AO, adult onset) and olfactory function: PPO-nIHH (n = 275), KS (n = 184), AO-nIHH (n = 36) and AO-doIHH (AO-IHH with defective olfaction, n = 8).
90% of patients were classified as PPO and 10% as AO. Typical midline and olfactory defects, bimanual synkinesis and familiarity for pubertal delay were also found among the AO-IHH. Mean age at diagnosis was significantly earlier and more frequently associated with congenital hypogonadism stigmata in patients with Kallmann’s syndrome (KS). Synkinesis, renal and male genital tract anomalies were enriched in KS. Overweight/obesity are significantly associated with AO-IHH rather than PPO-IHH.
Patients with KS are more prone to develop a severe and complex phenotype than nIHH. The presence of typical extra-gonadal defects and familiarity for PPO-IHH among the AO-IHH patients indicates a common predisposition with variable clinical expression. Overall, these findings improve the understanding of IHH and may have a positive impact on the management of patients and their families.