Matthew Wade, Smita Baid, Karim Calis, Hershel Raff, Ninet Sinaii and Lynnette Nieman
To examine the factors causing inadequate cortisol responses to the 1 μg ACTH stimulation test.
Random test assignment (by age and gender) at 0800 or 1600 h.
We recruited 20 healthy adults to each of the three age groups (<40 years, 40–55 years, and >55 years; half females in each group). ACTH stimulation tests were performed in an outpatient clinic at the NIH Clinical Research Center. Plasma cortisol was measured just before, and 30 and 60 min after the administration of 1 μg ACTH (1–24). The ACTH concentration in diluted and administered solutions was measured.
Twenty-five volunteers (19 at 1600 h) had a subnormal cortisol response (peak cortisol 10.4–17.5 μg/dl), using a criterion <18 μg/dl (497 nmol/l), for a specificity of 58% (confidence interval (CI) 45–71%). Afternoon testing had a significant impact on failure rates (odds ratio 6.98, CI 2.17–22.43), while gender and age did not. The stock solution contained 1 μg ACTH, but after administration through tubing it contained only 0.5–0.8 μg.
The high rate of abnormal results, especially in the afternoon, and loss of ACTH through tubing suggest that morning testing and minimal tubing should be adopted to avoid an inappropriate diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency. Earlier time points and standardized protocols would facilitate comparison of studies.
Sven C Mueller, Pamela Ng, Ninet Sinaii, Ellen W Leschek, Liza Green-Golan, Carol VanRyzin, Monique Ernst and Deborah P Merke
Very little is known about the mental health status in children with genetic causes of hyperandrogenism. This study sought to characterize psychiatric morbidity in this group.
Children (8–18 years) with the diagnosis of classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) or familial male precocious puberty (FMPP) underwent a semi-structured psychiatric interview, the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime Version. According to sex and the literature, incidence of identified psychopathology was compared between the two endocrinological groups. We evaluated 72 patients: 54 CAH (21 females) and 18 FMPP.
Twenty-four (44.4%) CAH patients and 10 (55.6%) FMPP patients met the criteria for at least one lifetime psychiatric diagnosis. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was present in 18.2% of CAH males, 44.4% of FMPP males, and one case (4.8%) in CAH females. A high rate of anxiety disorders was also found in all the three groups (17–21%). Relative to females with CAH, the FMPP patients exhibited higher rates of ADHD. Age at diagnosis and the treatment modalities were not associated with psychopathology. Rates of psychiatric disorder, specifically ADHD and anxiety disorders, were higher than in the general population.
Although anxiety disorders may occur at an increased rate in children with chronic illness, androgens may contribute to higher risk for psychopathology in pediatric patients with genetic cause of excess androgen. Early diagnosis and treatment of childhood hyperandrogenism is essential for optimal development. The results suggest that assessment for psychiatric disorders should be part of the routine evaluation of these patients.
Radha Nandagopal, Ninet Sinaii, Nilo A Avila, Carol Van Ryzin, Wuyan Chen, Gabriela P Finkielstain, Sneha P Mehta, Nazli B McDonnell and Deborah P Merke
To comprehensively phenotype parents identified with nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCCAH) by family genetic studies, termed here as cryptic NCCAH and to define the incidence of cryptic NCCAH in the parents of a large cohort of patients with 21-hydroxylase deficiency.
Genotyping was performed on 249 parents of 145 unrelated congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) patients. Parents with two CYP21A2 mutations underwent extensive evaluation.
Of the 249 parents, ten (4%; seven females and three males) were identified as having cryptic NCCAH. The majority was of ethnicities previously reported to have a higher incidence of NCCAH. Cosyntropin stimulation performed in eight parents provided biochemical confirmation (17-hydroxyprogesterone range 56–364 nmol/l) and cortisol response was ≤500 nmol/l in three parents (38%). Of the seven women (27–54 years) with cryptic NCCAH, four had prior infertility, two reported irregular menses, two had treatment for hirsutism, one had androgenic alopecia. Men were asymptomatic. All cryptic NCCAH parents reported normal puberty and had normal height. Adrenal hypertrophy and a small adrenal myelolipoma were observed in two parents; testicular adrenal rest tissue was not found.
Parents diagnosed with NCCAH by genetic testing are mostly asymptomatic. Temporary female infertility and suboptimal cortisol response were commonly observed. Ongoing glucocorticoid therapy is not indicated in adults with CAH identified by family genotype studies unless symptomatic, but glucocorticoid stress coverage should be considered in select cases. Parents of a child with CAH have a 1:25 risk of having NCCAH; if the mother of a child with CAH has infertility, evaluation for NCCAH is indicated.