Nathalie Silva, Olga Santos, Felipe Morais, Ilan Gottlieb, Macelo Hadlich, Tamara Rothstein, Milena Tauil, Nathalia Veras, Mario Vaisman and Patricia de Fátima Teixeira
Several studies have suggested an association between subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) and increased cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in asymptomatic patients with SCH by measuring the coronary artery calcium score (CACS).
A total of 222 asymptomatic subjects (103 SCH and 119 euthyroid (EU)), who were between the ages of 35 and 65 years and had no previous history of CAD, were enrolled for this cross-sectional analysis.
The criteria for SCH included a confirmed normal serum free thyroxine and high TSH levels. Lipid profile, Framingham risk score (FRS) and CACS analyses were performed for all subjects.
The SCH and EU groups were comparable with respect to age, gender, BMI and frequency of diabetes, systemic arterial hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia and smoking. There was no difference in the median CACS between the SCH and EU groups. However, in the subgroup of subjects with intermediate/high FRS (AR10y ≥10%), CACS was higher in the SCH subjects compared with EU subjects (EU vs SCH, 0.0 (57.0) vs 23.0 (161.5); P=0.045). Multivariate analysis revealed that the risk for CACS >100 was independently associated with male gender, age >55 years, and the presence of simultaneous SCH and AR10y ≥10% (OR=87.5 (CI=2.1–3500); P=0.001). Serum TSH was positively correlated with CACS, especially in intermediate/high FRS subjects (r
It was demonstrated that SCH represents an additional risk factor for CAD, notably in intermediate and high FRS subjects.
Haixia Guan, Nathalie Silva de Morais, Jessica Stuart, Sara Ahmadi, Ellen Marqusee, Mathew I Kim and Erik K. Alexander
To investigate the concordance of serologic and sonographic evidence of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis with its gold standard histopathologic identification.
We performed a retrospective analysis on a cohort of 825 consecutive patients in whom TPOAb and thyroid ultrasound were performed, and in whom thyroid nodule evaluation led to surgical and histopathologic analysis. The presence or absence of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis on histopathology was correlated with serologic and sonographic markers. We further assessed the impact of low versus high titers of TPOAb upon this concordance.
Of 825 patients, 277 (33.5%) had histologic confirmation of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, 235 patients (28.4%) had elevated serum levels of TPOAb, and 197 (23.8%) had sonographic evidence of diffuse heterogeneity. Of those with histopathologic evidence, only 64% had elevated TPOAb (sensitivity: 63.9%; specificity: 89.4%), while only 49% were sonographically diffusely heterogeneous (sensitivity: 49.1%; specificity: 88.9%). A subset of only 102 of 277 (37%) with histologically proven Hashimoto’s thyroiditis was positive for both TPOAb and diffusely heterogeneous. Concordance analysis demonstrated that TPOAb and histopathology had higher agreement (κ = 0.55) than did ultrasound and histopathology (κ = 0.40) for the diagnosis of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Higher titers of TPOAb correlated with a higher likelihood of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, with a best cutoff of 2.11-fold the upper normal level of TPOAb.
Only moderate concordance exists between serological evidence of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and histopathologic findings, though it increases with higher TPOAb concentration. Diffuse heterogeneity on ultrasound is a less-sensitive diagnostic tool than elevated TPOAb.